2004ApJS..155..623P


Query : 2004ApJS..155..623P

2004ApJS..155..623P - Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser., 155, 623-650 (2004/December-0)

Minimal cooling of neutron stars: a new paradigm.

PAGE D., LATTIMER J.M., PRAKASH M. and STEINER A.W.

Abstract (from CDS):

A new classification of neutron star cooling scenarios, involving either ``minimal'' cooling or ``enhanced'' cooling, is proposed. The minimal cooling scenario replaces and extends the so-called standard cooling scenario to include neutrino emission from the Cooper pair breaking and formation process. This emission dominates that due to the modified Urca process for temperatures close to the critical temperature for superfluid pairing. Minimal cooling is distinguished from enhanced cooling by the absence of neutrino emission from any direct Urca process, due either to nucleons or to exotica such as hyperons, Bose condensates, or deconfined quarks. Within the minimal cooling scenario, theoretical cooling models can be considered to be a four parameter family involving the equation of state (including various compositional possibilities) of dense matter, superfluid properties of dense matter, the composition of the neutron star envelope, and the mass of the neutron star. The consequences of minimal cooling are explored through extensive variations of these parameters. The results are compared with the inferred properties of thermally emitting neutron stars in order to ascertain if enhanced cooling occurs in any of them.

All stars for which thermal emissions have been clearly detected are at least marginally consistent with the lack of enhanced cooling, given the combined uncertainties in ages and temperatures or luminosities. The two pulsars PSR 0833-45 (Vela) and PSR 1706-44 would require enhanced cooling in case their ages and/or temperatures are on the lower side of their estimated values, whereas the four stars PSR 0656+14, PSR 1055-52, Geminga, and RX J0720.4-3125 may require some source of internal heating in case their age and/or luminosity are on the upper side of their estimated values. The new upper limits on the thermal luminosity of PSR J0205+6449 (in the supernova remnant 3C 58) and RX J0007.0+7302 (in CTA 1) are indicative of the occurrence of some enhanced neutrino emission beyond the minimal scenario.


Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): Dense Matter - Equation of State - Neutrinos - Stars: Neutron

CDS comments: Table 3: Object G093.3-6.9 not identified, PSR J0154+61 is a misprint for PSR B0154+61 (= PSR J0157+6212).

Simbad objects: 23

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Number of rows : 23
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2021
#notes
1 TYC 4018-3227-1 * 00 02 55.7097176984 +62 46 17.666764800   12.49 11.67     ~ 38 1
2 PSR J0007+7303 Psr 00 06 34.20 +73 11 06.6           ~ 153 1
3 SNR G119.5+10.2 SNR 00 06.6 +72 47           ~ 238 1
4 SNR G127.1+00.5 SNR 01 28 20.000 +63 10 00.00           ~ 91 0
5 PSR B0154+61 Psr 01 57 49.930 +62 12 25.90           ~ 113 0
6 SNR G130.7+03.1 SNR 02 05 37.0 +64 49 42           ~ 577 4
7 PSR J0205+6449 Psr 02 05 37.92 +64 49 42.8           ~ 221 1
8 PSR J0538+2813 Psr 05 38 25.06 +28 17 11.0           ~ 175 2
9 NAME Geminga Psr 06 33 54.153 +17 46 12.91           ~ 1114 0
10 PSR B0656+14 Psr 06 59 48.1960 +14 14 19.400   24.85 24.90     ~ 785 1
11 RX J0720.4-3125 N* 07 20 24.961 -31 25 50.21   26.1   27.0   ~ 288 0
12 EQ J0822-4247 * 08 22 -42.8           ~ 3 0
13 NAME Vela Pulsar Psr 08 35 20.65525 -45 10 35.1545     15.10     ~ 2120 1
14 PSR B1055-52 Psr 10 57 59.0450 -52 26 56.330           ~ 690 0
15 PSR J1124-5916 Psr 11 24 39.1 -59 16 20           ~ 139 1
16 PSR J1210-5226 Psr 12 10 00.88 -52 26 28.4           ~ 213 1
17 ESO 134-11 HII 14 40 29 -62 38.7           ~ 522 1
18 SNR G315.0-02.3 SNR 14 43 00 -62 30.0           ~ 352 1
19 PSR B1706-44 Psr 17 09 42.7460 -44 29 07.200     13.30     ~ 593 1
20 RX J1856.6-3754 N* 18 56 35.11 -37 54 30.5     25.7     ~ 394 0
21 SNR G084.2-00.8 SNR 20 53.3 +43 27           ~ 74 0
22 NAME Cas A SNR 23 23 24.000 +58 48 54.00     14.30     ~ 2514 1
23 CXOU J232327.8+584842 X 23 23 27.85 +58 48 42.8           ~ 22 1

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2021.07.31-10:21:09

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