Astrophys. J., 620, 948-960 (2005/February-3)
A starfish preplanetary nebula: IRAS 19024+0044.
SAHAI R., SANCHEZ CONTRERAS C. and MORRIS M.
Abstract (from CDS):
Using the Hubble Space Telescope, we have imaged the OH/IR star IRAS 19024+0044 (I19024) at 0.6, 0.8, 1.1, and 1.6 µm, as part of our surveys of candidate preplanetary nebulae. The images show a multipolar nebula of size ∼3".7x2".3, with at least six elongated lobes emanating from the center of the nebula. Two of the lobes show limb-brightened tips having point-symmetric structure with respect to the expected location of the central star. The central region shows two dark bands southwest and northeast of a central shallow maximum that may be either two inclined dusty toroidal structures or the dense parts of a single wide, inhomogeneous, toroid. A very faint, surface brightness-limited, diffuse halo surrounds the lobes. Long-slit/echelle optical spectroscopy obtained at the Mount Palomar and Keck observatories shows a spatially compact source of Hα emission; the Hα line shows a strong, narrow, central core with very broad (±1000 km/s), weak wings, and a narrower blueshifted absorption feature signifying the presence of a ∼100 km/s outflow. The spectrum is characterized by a strong, relatively featureless, continuum and lacks the strong forbidden emission lines characteristic of planetary nebulae, confirming that IRAS 19024 is a preplanetary nebula; the spectral type for the central star, although uncertain, is most likely early G. Interferometric observations of the CO J=1-0 line emission with the Owens Valley Radio Interferometer show a marginally resolved molecular envelope (size 5".5x4".4) with an expansion velocity of 13 km/s, resulting from the asymptotic giant granch (AGB) progenitor's dense, slow wind. We derive a kinematic distance of 3.5 kpc to I19024, based on its radial velocity. The bolometric flux is 7.3x10–9 ergs/s/cm2, and the luminosity 2850 L☉. The relatively low luminosity of I19024, in comparison with stellar evolutionary models, indicates that the initial mass of its central star was ∼1-1.5 M☉. The lobes, which appear to be hollow structures with dense walls, have a total mass greater than or equal to about 0.02 M☉. The dusty tori in the center have masses of a few times 10–3 M☉. The faint halo has a power-law radial surface brightness profile with an exponent of about -3 and most likely represents the remnant spherical circumstellar envelope formed as a result of constant mass loss during the AGB phase over the past several thousand years. From the CO data we infer a molecular mass ≳0.025 M☉and an expansion age ≲2870 yr, giving a mass-loss rate ≳10–5 M☉/yr. The far-infrared fluxes of I19024 indicate the presence of a large mass of cool dust in the nebula; from a simple model we infer the presence of ``cool'' (109 K) and ``warm'' (280 K) components of dust mass 5.7x10–4 and 1.5x10–7 M☉. We discuss our results for I19024 in the light of past and current ideas for the dramatic transformation of the morphology and kinematics of mass-ejecta as AGB stars evolve into planetary nebulae.
Stars: Circumstellar Matter - ISM: refection nebulae - ISM: Planetary Nebulae: General - Stars: AGB and Post-AGB - Stars: Individual: Alphanumeric: IRAS 19024+0044 - Stars: Mass Loss
Peak P = 2MASS J19050205+0048508
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