Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 449, 609-619 (2006/4-2)
The effect of a strong external radiation field on protostellar envelopes in Orion.
JORGENSEN J.K., JOHNSTONE D., VAN DISHOECK E.F. and DOTY S.D.
Abstract (from CDS):
We discuss the effects of an enhanced interstellar radiation field (ISRF) on the observables of protostellar cores in the Orion cloud region. Dust radiative transfer is used to constrain the envelope physical structure by reproducing SCUBA 850µm emission. Previously reported 13CO, C17O and H2CO line observations are reproduced through detailed Monte Carlo line radiative transfer models. It is found that the 13CO line emission is marginally optically thick and sensitive to the physical conditions in the outer envelope. An increased temperature in this region is needed in order to reproduce the 13CO line strengths and it is suggested to be caused by a strong heating from the exterior, corresponding to an ISRF in Orion 103 times stronger than the ``standard'' ISRF. The typical temperatures in the outer envelope are higher than the desorption temperature for CO. The C17O emission is less sensitive to this increased temperature but rather traces the bulk envelope material. The data are only fit by a model where CO is depleted, except in the inner and outermost regions where the temperature increases above 30-40K. The fact that the temperatures do not drop below ≃25K in any of the envelopes whereas a significant fraction of CO is frozen-out suggest that the interstellar radiation field has changed through the evolution of the cores. The H2CO lines are successfully reproduced in the model of an increased ISRF with constant abundances of 3-5x10–10.
stars: formation - radiative transfer - astrochemistry