2006ApJS..166..154P


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2021.05.09CEST06:26:35

2006ApJS..166..154P - Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser., 166, 154-187 (2006/September-0)

Optical counterparts of ultraluminous X-ray sources identified from archival HST WFPC2 images.

PTAK A., COLBERT E., VAN DER MAREL R.P., ROYE E., HECKMAN T. and TOWNE B.

Abstract (from CDS):

We present a systematic analysis of archival HST WFPC2 ``Association'' data sets that correlate with the Chandra positions of a set of 44 ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) of nearby galaxies. The main motivation is to address the nature of ULXs by searching for optical counterparts. Sixteen of the ULXs are found in early-type galaxies (RC3 Hubble type <3). We have improved the Chandra/HST relative astrometry whenever possible, resulting in errors circles of 0".3-1".7 in size. Disparate numbers of potential ULX counterparts are found, and in some cases none are found. The lack of or low number of counterparts in some cases may be due to insufficient depth in the WFPC2 images. Particularly in late-type galaxies, the HST image in the ULX region was often complex or crowded, requiring source detection to be performed manually. We therefore address various scenarios for the nature of the ULX since it is not known which, if any, of the sources found are true counterparts. The optical luminosities of the sources are typically in the range 104-106 L, with (effective) V magnitudes typically in the range 22-24. In several cases color information is available, with the colors roughly tending to be more red in early-type galaxies. This suggests that, in general, the (potential) counterparts found in early-type galaxies are likely to be older stellar populations and are probably globular clusters. Several early-type galaxy counterparts have blue colors, which may be due to younger stellar populations in the host galaxies, however, these could also be background sources. In spiral galaxies the sources may also be due to localized structure in the disks rather than bound stellar systems. Alternatively, some of the counterparts in late-type galaxies may be isolated supergiant stars. The observed X-ray/optical flux ratio is diluted by the optical emission of the cluster in cases where the system is an X-ray binary in a cluster, particularly in the case of a low-mass X-ray binaries in an old cluster. If any of the counterparts are bound systems with ∼104-106 stars and are the true counterparts to the ULX sources, then the X-ray luminosities of the ULX are generally well below the Eddington limit for a black hole with mass ∼0.1% of the cluster mass. Finally, we find that the optical flux of the counterparts is consistent with being dominated by emission from an accretion disk around an intermediate-mass black hole if the black hole happens to have a mass ≳102 Mand is accreting at close to the Eddington rate, unless the accretion disk is irradiated (which would result in high optical disk luminosities at lower black hole masses).

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): Catalogs - X-Rays: Binaries - X-Rays: Galaxies

Nomenclature: Table 1: [PCV2006] ULX NN (Nos 1-44). Fig.2, Table 3: [PCV2006] ULX NN N N=55.

Status at CDS : All or part of tables of objects will not be ingested in SIMBAD.

Simbad objects: 71

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Number of rows : 71

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2021
#notes
1 [PCV2006] ULX 1 HXB 00 52 02.72 +47 33 07.7           ~ 2 1
2 NGC 278 H2G 00 52 04.3422973787 +47 33 01.649350749   10.5       ~ 223 1
3 [PCV2006] ULX 2 ULX 02 22 31.36 +42 20 24.4           ~ 8 1
4 NGC 891 H2G 02 22 32.907 +42 20 53.95 11.08 10.81 9.93 7.86   ~ 1559 2
5 [SST2011] J024238.89-000055.1 UX? 02 42 38.89 -00 00 55.2           ~ 10 1
6 [SST2011] J024239.71-000101.4 UX? 02 42 39.71 -00 01 01.3           ~ 7 1
7 M 77 GiP 02 42 40.771 -00 00 47.84 9.70 9.61 8.87 10.1 9.9 ~ 4202 2
8 NGC 1097 LIN 02 46 19.059 -30 16 29.68 10.46 9.97 9.48 8.72 9.8 ~ 1211 3
9 [PCV2006] ULX 5 X 02 46 19.82 -30 16 02.6           ~ 1 1
10 [PCV2006] ULX 6 X 03 38 27.64 -35 26 48.2           ~ 1 1
11 NGC 1399 BiC 03 38 29.083 -35 27 02.67 11.05 9.74 9.59 8.12   ~ 1478 1
12 [SGT2004] J033831.82-352603.8 XB* 03 38 31.82 -35 26 03.8           ~ 25 1
13 [SGT2004] J033832.60-352705.1 XB* 03 38 32.60 -35 27 05.1           ~ 10 1
14 [PCV2006] ULX 9 X 04 56 52.21 -04 52 17.9           ~ 1 1
15 [PCV2006] ULX 10 X 04 56 56.03 -04 51 59.5           ~ 1 1
16 NGC 1700 GiG 04 56 56.347 -04 51 56.64   12   11.14   ~ 333 1
17 [PCV2006] ULX 11 X 04 57 01.9106087048 -04 51 16.902545693           ~ 1 1
18 CXOU J095546.5+694040 HXB 09 55 46.45 +69 40 40.3           ~ 17 1
19 NAME M82 ULX-1 UX? 09 55 50.01 +69 40 46.0           ~ 248 1
20 [PCV2006] ULX 14 X 09 55 50.91 +69 40 46.6           ~ 1 1
21 M 82 IG 09 55 52.430 +69 40 46.93 9.61 9.30 8.41     ~ 5451 6
22 NGC 3256 IG 10 27 51.284 -43 54 13.55   11.83 11.33 10.62 11.9 ~ 771 2
23 [PCV2006] ULX 15 X 10 27 52.54 -43 53 50.2           ~ 1 1
24 [LWZ2002] 14 X 10 27 55.14 -43 54 47.1           ~ 4 1
25 [PCV2006] ULX 17 X 10 36 42.66 -27 31 40.8           ~ 1 1
26 [PCV2006] ULX 18 X 10 36 42.75 -27 31 43.5           ~ 1 1
27 NGC 3311 BiC 10 36 42.821 -27 31 42.02   11.93 10.93 10.00 9.67 ~ 276 2
28 M 66 GiP 11 20 15.026 +12 59 28.64 9.85 9.65 8.92     ~ 1203 4
29 [SST2011] J112015.76+133513.7 UX? 11 20 15.75 +13 35 13.6           ~ 16 1
30 NGC 3628 GiP 11 20 17.018 +13 35 22.16   10.42 9.48 9.22   ~ 771 3
31 2XMM J112021.0+125846 UX? 11 20 20.89 +12 58 46.0           ~ 10 0
32 [ZFB2006] 27 HXB 12 01 51.3184341031 -18 52 24.889193145           ~ 24 1
33 [PCV2006] ULX 22 HXB 12 01 52.09 -18 51 33.6           ~ 20 1
34 NGC 4038 GiP 12 01 53.002 -18 52 03.32   10.91   9.74 11.0 ~ 1288 1
35 NAME Antennae IG 12 01 53.170 -18 52 37.92           ~ 1583 0
36 NGC 4039 GiP 12 01 53.8 -18 53 06   11.08   9.77   ~ 1137 1
37 [PCV2006] ULX 23 HXB 12 01 54.27 -18 52 01.9           ~ 9 1
38 [PCV2006] ULX 24 HXB 12 01 54.35 -18 52 10.3           ~ 9 1
39 [CHP2004] J120155.0-185315 HXB 12 01 54.97 -18 53 15.1           ~ 3 1
40 [PCV2006] ULX 26 HXB 12 01 55.60 -18 52 15.0           ~ 19 1
41 [PCV2006] ULX 27 HXB 12 01 56.43 -18 51 57.8           ~ 17 1
42 [PCV2006] ULX 28 HXB 12 01 58.22 -18 52 04.5           ~ 7 1
43 NGC 4150 GiG 12 10 33.655 +30 24 05.35 12.72 12.44 11.64     ~ 288 2
44 [SST2011] J121033.76+302358.0 UX? 12 10 33.758 +30 23 57.95           ~ 3 0
45 NGC 4490 GiP 12 30 36.368 +41 38 37.07 10.03 10.22 9.79     ~ 538 3
46 2XMM J123043.1+413819 HXB 12 30 43.25 +41 38 18.4           ~ 22 1
47 NGC 4559 H2G 12 35 57.6399424116 +27 57 35.859639262   10.46 10.01     ~ 553 1
48 RX J123558+27577 UX? 12 35 58.56 +27 57 41.9           ~ 36 2
49 [PCV2006] ULX 32 X 12 36 17.40 +25 58 55.5           ~ 1 1
50 NGC 4565 LIN 12 36 20.804 +25 59 14.61   13.61 12.43     ~ 893 0
51 M 104 LIN 12 39 59.43185 -11 37 22.9954 9.51 9.55 8.00 8.05   ~ 1301 3
52 [PCV2006] ULX 33 X 12 40 00.35 -11 37 24.0           ~ 1 1
53 [PCV2006] ULX 34 X 12 50 25.68 +25 31 29.2           ~ 1 1
54 NGC 4725 Sy2 12 50 26.5692916552 +25 30 02.737610391   13.45 12.44     ~ 636 2
55 [BWC2008] U31 ULX 13 05 21.94 -49 28 26.6           ~ 8 1
56 NGC 4945 Sy2 13 05 27.279 -49 28 04.44   9.31 14.40 7.55   ~ 1314 2
57 CXOU J131255.5-193040 XB* 13 12 55.59 -19 30 39.7           ~ 3 1
58 NGC 5018 GiP 13 13 01.000 -19 31 05.87   11.71   10.31   ~ 288 1
59 [GST2005] 3 XB* 13 13 02.03 -19 31 05.5           ~ 3 1
60 NGC 5033 Sy1 13 13 27.535 +36 35 37.14   11.01 12.03 9.73   ~ 811 3
61 CXOU J131329.5+363517 X 13 13 29.46 +36 35 17.3           ~ 3 1
62 CXOU J131329.7+363523 X 13 13 29.66 +36 35 23.1           ~ 3 1
63 [BWC2008] U35 ULX 13 25 19.87 -43 03 17.1           ~ 18 1
64 NAME Centaurus A Sy2 13 25 27.61509104 -43 01 08.8056025   8.18 6.84 6.66   ~ 4094 3
65 NAME Circinus Galaxy Sy2 14 13 09.906 -65 20 20.47   10.89 9.84 10.6 10.0 ~ 1042 2
66 [PCV2006] ULX 41 X 14 13 10.03 -65 20 45.1           ~ 1 1
67 [PCV2006] ULX 42 X 14 13 12.24 -65 20 14.0           ~ 1 1
68 NGC 6500 LIN 17 55 59.78195 +18 20 17.6713   13.43 12.54     ~ 211 0
69 CXOU J175601.6+182023 X 17 56 01.59 +18 20 22.6           ~ 3 1
70 NGC 7174 GiP 22 02 06.82 -31 59 36.5   12.26 12.15 10.84   ~ 81 0
71 CXOCY J220207.9-315919 X 22 02 07.92 -31 59 19.7     26.70   25.10 ~ 2 1

    Equat.    Gal    SGal    Ecl

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2021.05.09-06:26:35

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