Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 464, 1003-1013 (2007/3-4)
Simultaneous X-ray, radio, near-infrared, and optical monitoring of young stellar objects in the Coronet cluster.
FORBRICH J., PREIBISCH T., MENTEN K.M., NEUHAEUSER R., WALTER F.M., TAMURA M., MATSUNAGA N., KUSAKABE N., NAKAJIMA Y., BRANDEKER A., FORNASIER S., POSSELT B., TACHIHARA K. and BROEG C.
Abstract (from CDS):
Multi-wavelength (X-ray to radio) monitoring of Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) can provide important information about physical processes at the stellar surface, in the stellar corona, and/or in the inner circumstellar disk regions. While coronal processes should mainly cause variations in the X-ray and radio bands, accretion processes may be traced by time-correlated variability in the X-ray and optical/infrared bands. Several multi-wavelength studies have been successfully performed for field stars and ∼1-10Myr old T Tauri stars, but so far no such study succeeded in detecting simultaneous X-ray to radio variability in extremely young objects like class I and class 0 protostars. Here we present the first simultaneous X-ray, radio, near-infrared, and optical monitoring of YSOs, targeting the Coronet cluster in the Corona Australis star-forming region, which harbors at least one class 0 protostar, several class I objects, numerous T Tauri stars, and a few Herbig AeBe stars. In August 2005, we obtained five epochs of Chandra X-ray observations on nearly successive days accompanied by simultaneous radio observations at the NRAO Very Large Array during four epochs, as well as by simultaneous optical and near-infrared observations from ground-based telescopes in Chile and South Africa. Seven objects are detected simultaneously in the X-ray, radio, and optical/infrared bands; they constitute our core sample. While most of these sources exhibit clear variability in the X-ray regime and several also display optical/infrared variability, none of them shows significant radio variability on the timescales probed. We also do not find any case of clearly time-correlated optical/infrared and X-ray variability. Remarkable intra-band variability is found for the class I protostar IRS 5 which shows much lower radio fluxes than in previous observations, and the Herbig Ae star R CrA, which displays enhanced X-ray emission during the last two epochs, but no time-correlated variations are seen for these objects in the other bands. The two components of S CrA vary nearly synchronously in the I band. The absence of time-correlated multi-wavelength variability suggests that there is no direct link between the X-ray and optical/infrared emission and supports the notion that accretion is not an important source for the X-ray emission of these YSOs. No significant radio variability was found on timescales of days.
stars: pre-main sequence - stars: individual: R CrA - stars: individual: S CrA - radio continuum: stars - X-rays: stars - infrared: stars
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