Spatially resolved stellar kinematics of field early-type galaxies at z = 1: evolution of the rotation rate.
VAN DER WEL A. and VAN DER MAREL R.P.
Abstract (from CDS):
We use the spatial information of our previously published VLT/FORS2 absorption-line spectroscopy to measure mean stellar velocity and velocity dispersion profiles of 25 field early-type galaxies at a median redshift z=0.97 (full range 0.6<z<1.2). This provides the first detailed study of early-type galaxy rotation at these redshifts. From surface brightness profiles from HST imaging we calculate two-integral oblate axisymmetric Jeans equation models for the observed kinematics. Fits to the data yield for each galaxy the degree of rotational support and the mass-to-light ratio M/LJeans. S0 and Sa galaxies are generally rotationally supported, whereas elliptical galaxies rotate less rapidly or not at all. Down to MB=-19.5 (corrected for luminosity evolution), we find no evidence for evolution in the fraction of rotating early-type (E+S0) galaxies between z∼1 (63%±11%) and the present (61%±5%). We interpret this as evidence for little or no change in the field S0 fraction with redshift. We compare M/LJeans with M/Lvirinferred from the virial theorem and globally averaged quantities and assuming homologous evolution. There is good agreement for nonrotating (mostly E) galaxies. However, for rotationally supported galaxies (mostly S0) M/LJeans is on average ∼40% higher than M/Lvir. We discuss possible explanations and the implications for the evolution of M/L between z=1 and the present and its dependence on mass.
Galaxies: Elliptical and Lenticular, cD - Galaxies: Evolution - Galaxies: Fundamental Parameters - Galaxies: Kinematics and Dynamics