2009A&A...498..167V


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2021.06.17CEST04:51:10

2009A&A...498..167V - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 498, 167-194 (2009/4-4)

The nature of the class I population in Ophiuchus as revealed through gas and dust mapping.

VAN KEMPEN T.A., VAN DISHOECK E.F., SALTER D.M., HOGERHEIJDE M.R., JORGENSEN J.K. and BOOGERT A.C.A.

Abstract (from CDS):

The Ophiuchus clouds, in particular L 1688, are an excellent region to study the embedded phases of star formation, due to the relatively large number of protostars. However, the standard method of finding and characterizing embedded young stellar objects (YSOs) through just their infrared spectral slope does not yield a reliable sample. This may affect the age determinations, often derived from the statistics on the total number of embedded YSOs and pre-main sequence stars within a cloud. Our aim is to characterize the structure of protostellar envelopes on an individual basis and to correctly identify the embedded YSO population of L 1688. Spectral maps of the HCO+ J=4-3 and C18O J=3-2 lines, using the HARP-B array on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope and SCUBA 850µm dust maps, are obtained of all sources in the L 1688 region with infrared spectral slopes consistent with, or close to, that of embedded YSOs. Selected 350µm maps obtained with the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory are presented as well. The properties, extent and variation of dense gas, column density and dust up to 1' (∼7500AU) are probed at 15'' resolution. Using the spatial variation of the gas and dust, together with the intensity of the HCO+ J=4-3 line, we are able to accurately identify the truly embedded YSOs and determine their properties. The protostellar envelopes range from 0.05 to 0.5M in mass. The concentration of HCO+ emission (∼0.5 to 0.9) is generally higher than that of the dust concentration. Combined with absolute intensities, HCO+ proves to be a better tracer of protostellar envelopes than dust, which can contain disk and cloud contributions. Our total sample of 45 sources, including all previously classified Class I sources, several flat-spectrum sources and some known disks, was re-classified using the molecular emission. Of these, only 17 sources are definitely embedded YSOs. Four of these embedded YSOs have little (0.1-0.2 M) envelope material remaining and are likely at the interesting transitional stage from embedded YSO to T Tauri star. About half of the flat-spectrum sources are found to be embedded YSOs and about half are disks. The presented classification method is successful in separating embedded YSOs from edge-on disks and confused sources. The total embedded population of the Ophiuchus L 1688 cloud is found almost exclusively in Oph-A, Oph-B2 and the Ophiuchus ridge with only three embedded YSOs not related to these regions. The detailed characterization presented will be necessary to interpret deep interferometric ALMA and future Herschel observations.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): astrochemistry - circumstellar matter - stars: formation - submillimeter - ISM: clouds - ISM: molecules

VizieR on-line data: <Available at CDS (J/A+A/498/167): table1.dat table4.dat>

CDS comments: In table 1, position 16 27 48.2 -24 42 35.6 for SSTc2d J162748.2-244225 is a misprint for 16 27 48.2 -24 42 25.6 (J2000).

Simbad objects: 60

goto Full paper

goto View the reference in ADS

Number of rows : 60

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2021
#notes
1 NAME Taurus Complex SFR 04 41.0 +25 52           ~ 3722 0
2 Haro 1-4 Or* 16 25 10.508136 -23 19 14.78820       13.15   K4e 70 0
3 BKLT J162527-243647 Y*? 16 25 27.5835284475 -24 36 47.643996955           ~ 7 0
4 WLY 2-4 * 16 25 39.8594895666 -24 17 07.184614070           ~ 3 0
5 GSS 26 Y*O 16 26 10.33152 -24 20 54.8232           M0 76 1
6 CRBR 2315.8-1700 Y*O 16 26 17.22936 -24 23 45.3660           ~ 39 0
7 CRBR 2317.3-1925 Y*O 16 26 18.82056 -24 26 10.5216           M7 41 0
8 Elia 2-20 TT* 16 26 18.8782824640 -24 28 19.698059817           ~ 100 1
9 GSS 30 Y*O 16 26 21.38160 -24 23 04.0524           ~ 202 1
10 [JJK2008] SMM J162622-24225 smm 16 26 21.60 -24 22 54.8           ~ 40 0
11 [CHG85] GSS 30 IRS 3 Y*O 16 26 21.77376 -24 22 51.3948           ~ 58 0
12 DoAr 25 TT* 16 26 23.6911216715 -24 43 13.886717283       12.65   K5 135 0
13 [GY92] 30 Y*O 16 26 25.48920 -24 23 01.5576           ~ 39 0
14 NAME rho Oph A Cloud MoC 16 26 26.4 -24 22 33           ~ 255 1
15 NAME VLA 1623-243 Y*O 16 26 26.42 -24 24 30.0           ~ 386 0
16 [SSG2006] MMS002 smm 16 26 26.50 -24 24 30.9           ~ 241 0
17 VSSG 27 Y*O 16 26 30.46896 -24 22 57.1440           M 60 1
18 [GY92] 91 Y*O 16 26 40.46952 -24 27 14.4720           ~ 66 1
19 VSSG 30 Y*O 16 26 44.19504 -24 34 48.3492           ~ 129 0
20 WL 2 Y*O 16 26 48.48624 -24 28 38.9064           ~ 57 1
21 NAME rho Oph C Cloud MoC 16 26 53.1 -24 32 31           ~ 59 0
22 NAME rho Oph E MoC 16 27 02.0 -24 38 31           ~ 57 0
23 [GY92] 197 Y*O 16 27 05.24616 -24 36 29.7936           ~ 61 1
24 JCMTSF J162706.3-243702 PoC 16 27 06.5 -24 37 12           ~ 17 0
25 WL 17 Y*O 16 27 06.77616 -24 38 14.9964           ~ 90 0
26 Elia 2-29 Y*O 16 27 09.43032 -24 37 18.7716           ~ 270 1
27 EM* SR 21A TT* 16 27 10.2776332501 -24 19 12.620553212   16.08 14.10     G1 246 1
28 WLY 1-43 Y*O 16 27 11.17992 -24 40 46.6680           ~ 56 0
29 WL 19 Y*O 16 27 11.71416 -24 38 32.0604           ~ 68 0
30 NAME WL 20S BD? 16 27 15.69 -24 38 45.7           ~ 13 0
31 WL 20 Y*O 16 27 15.69840 -24 38 43.4364           ~ 78 0
32 NAME WL 20E Y*O 16 27 15.87648 -24 38 43.3896           ~ 71 0
33 YLW 12A Y*O 16 27 17.57160 -24 28 56.2944           ~ 66 0
34 WL 3 Y*O 16 27 19.21584 -24 28 43.8528           K7 62 0
35 YLW 13B Y*O 16 27 21.46872 -24 41 43.0692           ~ 88 0
36 WL 6 Y*O 16 27 21.80448 -24 29 53.3616           ~ 113 0
37 BBRCG 43 Y*O 16 27 21.97560 -24 29 39.7716           ~ 27 0
38 CRBR 2422.8-3423 Y*O 16 27 24.61320 -24 41 03.4080           ~ 83 1
39 YLW 15 Y*O 16 27 26.93640 -24 40 50.8224           ~ 246 1
40 NAME rho Oph B2 Cloud PoC 16 27 27.9 -24 26 29           ~ 79 1
41 YLW 16A Y*O 16 27 28.02744 -24 39 33.5052           K8 185 0
42 Elia 2-32 Y*O 16 27 28.44576 -24 27 21.0348           K6.5 107 1
43 YLW 16B Y*O 16 27 29.43528 -24 39 16.1892           ~ 104 0
44 Elia 2-33 Y*O 16 27 30.18024 -24 27 43.3656           M2 112 1
45 IRAS 16245-2423 TT* 16 27 37.1911764648 -24 30 35.031583716       16.66 14.67 B5-F2 247 0
46 NAME rho Oph F MoC 16 27 37.3 -24 42 28           ~ 59 0
47 [GY92] 312 Y*O 16 27 38.94456 -24 40 20.6724           M2.5 40 0
48 YLW 45 Y*O 16 27 39.82824 -24 43 15.0672           ~ 111 0
49 EM* SR 9 Or* 16 27 40.2858402419 -24 22 04.132012501   12.91 11.533 11.11 10.00 K5e 260 0
50 BKLT J162741-244645 Y*O 16 27 41.61024 -24 46 44.7420           ~ 19 0
51 2MASS J16274825-2442256 BD? 16 27 48.25 -24 42 25.6           ~ 12 0
52 YLW 52 Y*O 16 27 51.80472 -24 31 45.5304           ~ 64 0
53 NAME Ophiuchus Molecular Cloud SFR 16 28 06 -24 32.5           ~ 3186 1
54 BKLT J162813-243139 Y*O 16 28 13.74000 -24 31 39.4608           ~ 51 0
55 NAME Ophiuchus D MoC 16 28 29.2 -24 18 25           ~ 107 0
56 BKLT J162858-244054 BD? 16 28 57.86880 -24 40 54.9156           ~ 13 0
57 IRAS 16285-2355 Y*O 16 31 35.65752 -24 01 29.4708           ~ 108 0
58 LDN 1689 DNe 16 32 22.5 -24 28 29           ~ 115 0
59 IRAS 16293-2422 cor 16 32 22.56 -24 28 31.8           ~ 1098 1
60 NAME Gould Belt PoG ~ ~           ~ 764 1

    Equat.    Gal    SGal    Ecl

To bookmark this query, right click on this link: simbad:objects in 2009A&A...498..167V and select 'bookmark this link' or equivalent in the popup menu


2021.06.17-04:51:10

© Université de Strasbourg/CNRS

    • Contact