2009A&A...507..327O


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2021.06.22CEST09:08:51

2009A&A...507..327O - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 507, 327-345 (2009/11-3)

C2D Spitzer-IRS spectra of disks around T Tauri stars. IV. Crystalline silicates.

OLOFSSON J., AUGEREAU J.-C., VAN DISHOECK E.F., MERIN B., LAHUIS F., KESSLER-SILACCI J., DULLEMOND C.P., OLIVEIRA I., BLAKE G.A., BOOGERT A.C.A., BROWN J.M., EVANS II N.J., GEERS V., KNEZ C., MONIN J.-L. and PONTOPPIDAN K.

Abstract (from CDS):

Dust grains in the planet-forming regions around young stars are expected to be heavily processed due to coagulation, fragmentation, and crystallization. This paper focuses on the crystalline silicate dust grains in protoplanetary disks for a statistically significant number of TTauri stars (96). As part of the cores to disks (c2d) legacy program, we obtained more than a hundred Spitzer/IRS spectra of TTauri stars, over a spectral range of 5-35µm where many silicate amorphous and crystalline solid-state features are present. At these wavelengths, observations probe the upper layers of accretion disks up to distances of a dozen AU from the central object. More than 3/4 of our objects show at least one crystalline silicate emission feature that can be essentially attributed to Mg-rich silicates. The Fe-rich crystalline silicates are largely absent in the c2d IRS spectra. The strength and detection frequency of the crystalline features seen at λ>20µm correlate with each other, while they are largely uncorrelated with the observational properties of the amorphous silicate 10µm feature. This supports the idea that the IRS spectra essentially probe two independent disk regions: a warm zone (≤1AU) emitting at λ∼10µm and a much colder region emitting at λ>20µm (≤10AU). We identify a crystallinity paradox, as the long-wavelength (λ>20µm) crystalline silicate features are detected 3.5 times more frequently (∼55% vs. ∼15%) than the crystalline features arising from much warmer disk regions (λ∼10µm). This suggests that the disk has an inhomogeneous dust composition within ∼10AU. The analysis of the shape and strength of both the amorphous 10µm feature and the crystalline feature around 23µm provides evidence for the prevalence of µm-sized (amorphous and crystalline) grains in upper layers of disks. The abundant crystalline silicates found far from their presumed formation regions suggest efficient outward radial transport mechanisms in the disks around TTauri stars. The presence of µm-sized grains in disk atmospheres, despite the short timescales for settling to the midplane, suggests efficient (turbulent) vertical diffusion, probably accompanied by grain-grain fragmentation to balance the expected efficient growth. In this scenario, the depletion of submicron-sized grains in the upper layers of the disks points toward removal mechanisms such as stellar winds or radiation pressure.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): stars: pre-main sequence - planetary systems: protoplanetary disks - circumstellar matter - infrared: stars - methods: statistical - techniques: spectroscopic

CDS comments: SSTc2d J182928.2+002257 is a missprint for SSTc2d J182928.2-002257

Simbad objects: 124

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Number of rows : 124

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2021
#notes
1 ACO S 205 ClG 01 55 11 -58 32.3           ~ 6 0
2 2MASS J03274767+3012043 Y*O 03 27 47.6826386762 +30 12 04.459144041     19.6     ~ 97 1
3 EM* LkHA 325 TT* 03 28 52.1842733766 +30 45 05.593559918 15.63 14.71 13.43     K5:e 42 0
4 EM* LkHA 270 TT* 03 29 17.6756898303 +31 22 44.898266275   14.5       K2/3IIIe 78 0
5 EM* LkHA 271 Y*O 03 29 21.8748368520 +31 15 36.245029969   14.0 14.3     K4.0 59 0
6 2MASS J03303593+3030244 Y*O 03 30 35.944032 +30 30 24.44508   14.72 12.99 12.39   ~ 15 0
7 2MASS J03303697+3031276 Y*O 03 30 36.9756728713 +30 31 27.657677239   20.8   18.4   ~ 12 0
8 EM* LkHA 326 Y*O 03 30 44.0132509711 +30 32 46.808287930     16     G 34 0
9 2MASS J03305252+3054177 Y*O 03 30 52.5228728289 +30 54 17.735692104           ~ 11 0
10 2MASS J03324171+3110461 Y*O 03 32 41.7208501511 +31 10 46.333276588           ~ 12 0
11 EM* LkHA 327 ** 03 33 30.414576 +31 10 50.48508   16.67 14.72 14.26   K2 57 0
12 2MASS J03334129+3113410 Y*O 03 33 41.2982765499 +31 13 41.029284464           ~ 11 0
13 NAME Perseus Cloud SFR 03 35.0 +31 13           ~ 1143 0
14 2MASS J03413918+3136106 Y*? 03 41 39.1856150855 +31 36 10.667735865   10.60 10.23 10.29   A8V 15 0
15 2MASS J03421927+3143269 Y*O 03 42 19.2885464590 +31 43 26.916601956           ~ 12 0
16 IRAS F03406+3133 Be* 03 43 44.4967945184 +31 43 09.346681969           Be 15 0
17 EM* LkHA 330 TT* 03 45 48.2804487421 +32 24 11.851014679   12.30 10.97     F7 126 0
18 IRAS 03446+3254 Y*O 03 47 47.127480 +33 04 03.23220       15.43   ~ 26 0
19 IRAS F04147+2822 TT* 04 17 49.6578079496 +28 29 36.325239443           M3.7 65 0
20 V* IP Tau Or* 04 24 57.0823478325 +27 11 56.543062579   14.50   12.46   M0:Ve 201 0
21 V* IQ Tau Or* 04 29 51.5569553814 +26 06 44.854858369 15.43   13.80 12.28 11.11 M0.5 209 0
22 NAME Tau-Aur Complex SFR 04 30 +25.0           ~ 1256 0
23 V* FX Tau Or* 04 30 29.618064 +24 26 45.02724   15.18 13.61 13.21   M4 144 0
24 V* V710 Tau ** 04 31 57.79848 +18 21 36.9396           ~ 156 0
25 V* V710 Tau A TT* 04 31 57.8032267772 +18 21 34.726898440       13.87   M2/3e 158 0
26 V* V1321 Tau TT* 04 32 53.2359649386 +17 35 33.645694399     13.69     M2 44 0
27 V* DN Tau Or* 04 35 27.3776240781 +24 14 58.908761629 13.56 12.88 11.50 11.79   M1:Ve 357 0
28 NAME CoKu Tau 3 TT* 04 35 40.937952 +24 11 08.49012 20.58         M4.3 93 0
29 NAME Taurus Complex SFR 04 41.0 +25 52           ~ 3723 0
30 CoKu Tau-Aur Star 4 TT* 04 41 16.8106225314 +28 40 00.077173462   16.40 14.68 14.59   M1.5e 169 0
31 IRAS S04414+2506 BD* 04 44 27.1421731772 +25 12 16.439761677           M7e 65 0
32 V* BF Ori Ae* 05 37 13.2623698298 -06 35 00.565420577 10.37 10.00 9.69 10.06 9.31 A7III 272 0
33 V* RR Tau Ae* 05 39 30.5114685049 +26 22 26.961204895 11.64 12.09 11.28 10.58 10.17 A0:IVe 217 0
34 V* AT Pyx Or* 08 28 40.6971304655 -33 46 22.287241515     12.7     K2.0 29 1
35 V* SX Cha Or* 10 55 59.802000 -77 24 40.12524   16.01 14.57 14.23 12.35 M1.5+M3 82 0
36 V* SY Cha Or* 10 56 30.3882538728 -77 11 39.402450501         11.29 K5Ve 116 0
37 V* TW Cha Or* 10 59 01.0608276980 -77 22 40.946475900     13.40   11.68 K8Ve 118 0
38 ISO-ChaI 13 NIR 11 02 55.792 -77 24 30.41         18.09 ~ 6 0
39 CHXR 74 TT* 11 06 57.3104472434 -77 42 10.645175426         13.66 M3Ve 42 0
40 [CCE98] 2-24 Y*O 11 07 21.426 -77 22 11.76           M2 33 0
41 V* VW Cha Or* 11 08 01.3974165580 -77 42 28.579297348 13.91 14.04 12.80   10.69 K7+M0 170 0
42 V* HU Cha Or* 11 09 18.12888 -76 30 29.2500         14.99 M1/2e 47 0
43 V* VZ Cha Or* 11 09 23.7736314968 -76 23 20.855918834   13.82 12.94   12.14 K7e 128 0
44 V* WX Cha Or* 11 09 58.666944 -77 37 09.03432   14.93 13.85 14.23 12.20 M1+M5 91 0
45 HJM C 1-8 Y*O 11 10 11.3920788538 -76 35 29.251306607         13.75 K5Ve 50 0
46 TWA 3 ** 11 10 27.894072 -37 31 51.96612   13.53 12.05 11.61 9.29 M4Ve+M4Ve 203 0
47 TWA 3A TT* 11 10 27.9117558304 -37 31 51.529219753   14.04 12.57   9.10 M4Ve 194 0
48 Glass Q Y*O 11 10 37.9009258039 -77 32 39.873598579   16.89 14.97   11.90 K5.5+K7 67 0
49 Ass Cha T 1-27 Or* 11 10 49.5666192333 -77 17 51.754825123   16.80 16.64   13.84 M4Ve 71 0
50 V* XX Cha Or* 11 11 39.6733333784 -76 20 15.037536625   16.67 15.28   12.56 M3Ve 99 1
51 HD 98922 Be* 11 22 31.6740564115 -53 22 11.456030308   6.80 6.76     B9Ve 117 1
52 HD 101412 Be* 11 39 44.4562795603 -60 10 27.717502041   9.465 9.288     A3VaekA0mA0_lB 122 0
53 NAME Chamaeleon Region SFR 11 55 -78.0           ~ 716 0
54 V* T Cha Or* 11 57 13.5268556629 -79 21 31.521755129   10.00 11.86     K0e 244 1
55 IRAS 12535-7623 Y*O 12 57 11.6976232932 -76 40 11.310030727   17.20 15.00     M0e 38 0
56 2MASS J12580676-7709094 Y*O 12 58 06.6822511637 -77 09 09.647363561         19.61 M6 19 0
57 Sz 49 Y*O 13 00 53.2477697970 -76 54 15.207461632   15.6       M0.5 40 0
58 Sz 50 Y*O 13 00 55.3820751133 -77 10 22.247668674   17.64 16.01     M3 41 0
59 2MASS J13005927-7714027 Y*O 13 00 59.2793363460 -77 14 02.847373574         16.26 ~ 21 0
60 Sz 52 Y*O 13 04 24.8672946643 -77 52 30.284943777   17.7     14.66 M2.5 25 0
61 V* DL Cha LP* 13 06 08.3990620091 -77 06 27.214812252   12.79 11.57     M6III 23 0
62 Sz 62 Y*O 13 09 50.37 -77 57 24.0   16.99 15.55     M2.5 30 0
63 HD 132947 * 15 04 56.0562927863 -63 07 52.642456945   9.00 8.94     B9V 30 0
64 HD 135344 * 15 15 48.9457954324 -37 08 55.727525343   7.84 7.76     A0V 130 1
65 CD-33 10685 Or* 15 45 12.8670160093 -34 17 30.646921079 12.47 11.56 10.224 9.60 8.685 K3Ve 232 1
66 V* GW Lup Or* 15 46 44.7292759994 -34 30 35.677245389   13.8       M1.5e 95 0
67 V* HM Lup Or* 15 47 50.6290613485 -35 28 35.404500425   15.96       M3e 65 0
68 THA 15-5 TT* 15 47 56.9433443193 -35 14 34.797849332   14.5 16.2     K7e 70 0
69 CD-35 10525 Or* 15 49 12.1055573607 -35 39 05.053991067 12.19 12.76 11.66 11.15   K7Ve 257 0
70 Sz 76 TT* 15 49 30.7354526514 -35 49 51.418314548   14.4       M3.2 39 0
71 THA 15-12 Or* 15 56 09.2067120748 -37 56 06.126159332   13.12 11.93 11.45   M0e 289 0
72 V* RU Lup Or* 15 56 42.3109948086 -37 49 15.473469159 9.27 10.07 9.60     K7/M0e 405 0
73 Sz 84 TT* 15 58 02.5212129160 -37 36 02.733294310   14.3       M5.0e 57 0
74 V* RY Lup Or* 15 59 28.3852522995 -40 21 51.255321659   12.62 9.90     G8/K1IV-V 182 0
75 NAME Lup Cloud SFR 16 03 -38.1           ~ 566 0
76 HD 325367 Or* 16 03 05.4914377137 -40 18 25.426543472   11.40 8.50     M0 297 0
77 V* NO Lup TT* 16 03 11.8109703813 -32 39 20.284249713 15.13 14.25 12.864 12.14 11.149 K7 22 0
78 Sz 96 TT* 16 08 12.6306575418 -39 08 33.469578208   14.80 13.43 13.69 11.84 ~ 67 0
79 WRAY 16-203 Or* 16 08 29.7086692265 -39 03 10.994386198   16.26 15.91 15.38 15.69 K0: 158 1
80 V* V866 Sco Or* 16 11 31.345632 -18 38 25.96200   13.98 12.63 12.81   K0e+K5e 254 0
81 2MASS J16115979-3823383 TT* 16 11 59.7951623767 -38 23 38.375533996   18.17 16.55 16.24 14.26 M5.0e 39 0
82 WRAY 15-1443 TT* 16 15 20.2339854383 -32 55 05.097043020 13.88 13.22 12.00 11.21 10.50 K5 71 0
83 Haro 1-1 Or* 16 21 34.7046243951 -26 12 26.914958774   14.59       K5e 57 0
84 2MASS J16214848-2340273 TT? 16 21 48.4823400790 -23 40 27.306813868         17.50 M5.5 12 0
85 2MASS J16222099-2304025 TT? 16 22 21.0065613084 -23 04 02.356731899           ~ 11 0
86 2MASS J16224539-2431237 TT? 16 22 45.4062400689 -24 31 24.499254454           M3 23 0
87 2MASS J16233283-2258468 TT? 16 23 32.8359639452 -22 58 46.911831810           M5 17 0
88 Haro 1-4 Or* 16 25 10.508136 -23 19 14.78820       13.15   K4e 70 0
89 Elia 2-20 TT* 16 26 18.8782824640 -24 28 19.698059817           ~ 100 1
90 GSS 31 TT* 16 26 23.3694945462 -24 20 59.580653864   15.9 14.70 14.33 11.53 K0e 138 1
91 DoAr 25 TT* 16 26 23.6911216715 -24 43 13.886717283       12.65   K5 135 0
92 GSS 32 TT* 16 26 24.0521249616 -24 24 48.105099750       17.81 15.58 K5-K6 98 1
93 EM* SR 21A TT* 16 27 10.2776332501 -24 19 12.620553212   16.08 14.10     G1 246 1
94 BKLT J162715-245137 TT* 16 27 15.1288179688 -24 51 38.809044111   16.9 15.02 13.86 12.38 M2 59 1
95 EM* SR 9 Or* 16 27 40.2858402419 -24 22 04.132012501   12.91 11.533 11.11 10.00 K5e 260 0
96 NAME Ophiuchus Molecular Cloud SFR 16 28 06 -24 32.5           ~ 3186 1
97 ISO-Oph 195 TT* 16 28 16.7367246915 -24 05 14.439072530       15.59 13.91 K5-K6 34 0
98 EM* SR 13 Or* 16 28 45.2753496511 -24 28 18.830243306     13.60 12.40 10.9 M2e 126 0
99 V* V2131 Oph Or* 16 31 15.7390747430 -24 34 02.512884637   12.0 12.05 11.06 10.13 ~ 94 0
100 ROXs 43A TT* 16 31 20.1187037852 -24 30 05.059723324   11.89 10.93     G5IVe 48 0
101 DoAr 43 Em* 16 31 30.8845137759 -24 24 39.908052315   16.98 15.23 15.20   K2Ve 52 0
102 Haro 1-16 Or* 16 31 33.4638378966 -24 27 37.158295501   14.02 12.80     K3e 189 0
103 Haro 1-17 Y*O 16 32 21.9312543188 -24 42 14.835977855   16.76 15.61     M2.5e 38 0
104 V* V1003 Oph Or* 16 34 09.1694383329 -15 48 16.776308800     13.44     G5 90 0
105 Hen 3-1258 Or* 16 48 45.6323559591 -14 16 35.849943900   14.94 13.34 12.84   K6 93 0
106 EM* AS 209 Or* 16 49 15.3035547820 -14 22 08.642015783   12.62 11.28     K4Ve 264 0
107 HD 163296 Ae* 17 56 21.2882188601 -21 57 21.872343282 7.00 6.93 6.85 6.86 6.67 A1Vep 872 0
108 V* VV Ser Ae* 18 28 47.8619658319 +00 08 39.924642619 12.99 12.63 11.80 11.01 10.24 A5Ve 232 0
109 SSTc2d J182849.4+000604 TT? 18 28 49.0 +00 06 04           ~ 3 0
110 2MASS J18285021+0009494 TT? 18 28 50.2158480251 +00 09 49.560287045           K5: 17 0
111 2MASS J18285946+0030027 TT? 18 28 59.461 +00 30 02.76           ~ 12 0
112 2MASS J18290088+0029312 Y*O 18 29 00.8921044469 +00 29 31.360084271       17.0   K7: 19 0
113 HBC 668 Em* 18 29 01.2258619468 +00 29 33.113212934   16.8       M0.5: 24 0
114 HBC 671 Em* 18 29 01.8367751476 +00 29 54.753564712   18.4       K0: 25 0
115 2MASS J18290980+0034456 Y*O 18 29 09.8083212924 +00 34 45.738464278           M5: 11 0
116 2MASS J18292824-0022573 Y*O 18 29 28.24 -00 22 57.4           ~ 15 1
117 NAME Serpens Cloud SFR 18 29 49 +01 14.8           ~ 975 2
118 2MASS J18295433+0115017 Y*O 18 29 54.34 +01 15 01.8           ~ 10 0
119 HBC 672 Em* 18 29 56.8828626544 +01 14 46.339137067   17.6       K8.0 100 0
120 IRAS 18274+0112 Y*O 18 29 57.73680 +01 14 05.6940           M4: 137 2
121 2MASS J18295785+0112514 Y*O 18 29 57.858 +01 12 51.40           ~ 59 3
122 [EC92] 95 Y*O 18 29 57.893 +01 12 46.25           K1.0 72 3
123 2MASS J18295820+0115216 Y*O 18 29 58.2037104611 +01 15 21.603460135           K7.0 38 0
124 EM* LkHA 348 Em* 18 34 12.6529871707 -00 26 21.801700162     14.3     F6 31 0

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2021.06.22-09:08:51

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