2009ApJ...696..411W


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2021.05.15CEST23:51:36

2009ApJ...696..411W - Astrophys. J., 696, 411-447 (2009/May-1)

Bulge N and B/T in high-mass galaxies: constraints on the origin of bulges in hierarchical models.

WEINZIRL T., JOGEE S., KHOCHFAR S., BURKERT A. and KORMENDY J.

Abstract (from CDS):

We use the bulge Sérsic index n and bulge-to-total mass ratio (B/T) to explore the fundamental question of how bulges form. We perform two-dimensional bulge-disk-bar decomposition on H-band images of 143 bright, high-mass (M {*}≥ 1.0x1010 M) low-to-moderately inclined (i < 70°) spirals. Our results are as follows. (1) Our H-band bar fraction (∼58%) is consistent with that from ellipse fits. (2) 70% of the stellar mass is in disks, 10% in bars, and 20% in bulges. (3) A large fraction (∼69%) of bright spirals have B/T≤ 0.2, and ∼76% have low n ≤ 2 bulges. These bulges exist in barred and unbarred galaxies across a wide range of Hubble types. (4) About 65% (68%) of bright spirals with n ≤ 2 (B/T ≤ 0.2) bulges host bars, suggesting a possible link between bars and bulges. (5) We compare the results with predictions from a set of ΛCDM models. In the models, a high-mass spiral can have a bulge with a present-day low B/T≤ 0.2 only if it did not undergo a major merger since z ≤ 2. The predicted fraction (∼ 1.6%) of high-mass spirals, which have undergone a major merger since z ≤ 4 and host a bulge with a present-day low B/T ≤ 0.2, is a factor of over 30 smaller than the observed fraction (∼66%) of high-mass spirals with B/T ≤ 0.2. Thus, contrary to common perception, bulges built via major mergers since z ≤ 4 seriously fail to account for the bulges present in ∼66% of high mass spirals. Most of these present-day low B/T ≤ 0.2 bulges are likely to have been built by a combination of minor mergers and/or secular processes since z ≤ 4.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): galaxies: bulges - galaxies: evolution - galaxies: formation - galaxies: fundamental parameters - galaxies: interactions - galaxies: structure

Simbad objects: 145

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Number of rows : 145

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2021
#notes
1 NGC 150 EmG 00 34 15.4718877833 -27 48 12.767534106   12.04 11.13 10.92 11.7 ~ 181 0
2 NGC 157 EmG 00 34 46.751 -08 23 47.36   11.0 19.00 10.03 10.7 ~ 334 0
3 NGC 210 GiP 00 40 34.9915408968 -13 52 21.998215700   11.8   11.00 11.4 ~ 162 0
4 NGC 278 H2G 00 52 04.3422973787 +47 33 01.649350749   10.5       ~ 223 1
5 NGC 289 AGN 00 52 42.365 -31 12 20.99   11.36 13.44 10.38 11.4 ~ 209 0
6 NGC 428 AGN 01 12 55.709 +00 58 53.69   12.1   12.0 12.1 ~ 216 0
7 NGC 488 GiG 01 21 46.848 +05 15 24.19   15.0       ~ 282 0
8 NGC 578 G 01 30 28.548 -22 40 01.96   11.72 10.93 10.63 11.6 ~ 161 0
9 NGC 613 AGN 01 34 18.235 -29 25 06.56   10.77 12.71 9.50 10.6 ~ 363 3
10 NGC 685 G 01 47 42.8350083491 -52 45 42.828444596   12.02   11.08 11.9 ~ 90 0
11 NGC 779 EmG 01 59 42.625 -05 57 50.95   12.1   10.91 11.7 ~ 118 0
12 NGC 864 H2G 02 15 27.641 +06 00 09.43   12.00       ~ 209 1
13 NGC 908 GiP 02 23 04.569 -21 14 01.86   11.03 10.18 9.84 10.6 ~ 179 1
14 IC 239 GiG 02 36 27.8261541832 +38 58 09.081767475   12.1   12.75   ~ 98 0
15 NGC 1042 GiP 02 40 23.9725496856 -08 26 00.749394900 11.47 11.56 11.02 11.7 11.4 ~ 231 1
16 NGC 1073 EmG 02 43 40.598 +01 22 33.13   11.3   11.3 11.8 ~ 310 0
17 NGC 1084 GiG 02 45 59.926 -07 34 43.10 11.22 11.59 10.73 10.55 11.1 ~ 339 2
18 NGC 1087 H2G 02 46 25.1544569366 -00 29 55.449975319   11.5   11.4 11.5 ~ 282 0
19 NGC 1187 EmG 03 02 37.5891179515 -22 52 02.463111425   11.41   10.43 11.2 ~ 200 1
20 NGC 1241 Sy2 03 11 14.636 -08 55 19.70 12.07 12.84 11.99 12.7 12.5 ~ 196 2
21 NGC 1300 GiP 03 19 41.0453355271 -19 24 40.141850719   11.16 10.42 9.90 10.7 ~ 460 0
22 NGC 1302 GiG 03 19 51.2028576345 -26 03 37.942953768   11.43   9.99 10.8 ~ 136 0
23 NGC 1309 GiG 03 22 06.5558186281 -15 23 59.793798444   12.08   12.5 11.7 ~ 194 0
24 NGC 1317 GiP 03 22 44.2812268852 -37 06 13.162532124 12.20 11.78 11.02 10.22   ~ 187 1
25 NGC 1350 GiG 03 31 08.119 -33 37 43.10   11.20 10.52 9.77 10.6 ~ 167 0
26 NGC 1367 GiG 03 35 01.351 -24 55 59.19   11.48   9.98 11.1 ~ 175 0
27 NGC 1385 EmG 03 37 28.323 -24 30 04.60 11.28 11.50 10.94 10.45 11.7 ~ 220 2
28 NGC 1511 GiP 03 59 36.98373 -67 38 03.3430   11.97   10.74 11.1 ~ 116 0
29 NGC 1559 GiG 04 17 35.7501219046 -62 47 01.225146010   11.19 10.45 10.11 10.4 ~ 238 1
30 NGC 1703 GiG 04 52 52.145 -59 44 31.98   12.31   11.43 11.6 ~ 79 0
31 NGC 1792 EmG 05 05 14.454 -37 58 50.70   10.68 10.18 9.53 10.4 ~ 202 1
32 NGC 1808 Sy2 05 07 42.343 -37 30 46.98 11.05 10.80 9.94 9.36 10.2 ~ 667 3
33 NGC 1964 GiG 05 33 21.7894546695 -21 56 44.156746901 11.79 11.45 10.81 10.42 11.2 ~ 126 1
34 NGC 2090 GiG 05 47 01.8563832745 -34 15 01.657223780 12.17 11.70 11.20 10.43 11.0 ~ 164 1
35 NGC 2139 EmG 06 01 07.963 -23 40 20.35   12.10 11.71 11.28 12.1 ~ 137 0
36 NGC 2196 EmG 06 12 09.633 -21 48 21.27   11.98   10.69 11.4 ~ 103 0
37 NGC 2442 LIN 07 36 23.842 -69 31 50.96 11.47 11.15 10.42 9.71 10.4 ~ 191 1
38 NGC 2559 GiG 08 17 06.074 -27 27 20.95   11.71   10.10 10.7 ~ 69 0
39 NGC 2566 GiG 08 18 45.608 -25 29 58.27   11.81   10.50 11.2 ~ 64 0
40 NGC 2775 G 09 10 20.112 +07 02 16.53   11.417 10.481 9.920 8.994 ~ 329 0
41 NGC 3059 G 09 50 08.181 -73 55 19.96   11.56 11.24 10.66 11.5 ~ 74 0
42 NGC 3166 GiP 10 13 45.674 +03 25 28.81   11.2       ~ 218 0
43 NGC 3169 GiP 10 14 15.099 +03 27 58.03   13.46 12.41     ~ 341 1
44 NGC 3223 EmG 10 21 35.076 -34 16 00.44   11.82 10.82 10.35 11.2 ~ 162 0
45 NGC 3227 GiP 10 23 30.57 +19 51 54.3   12.61 11.79     ~ 1573 2
46 NGC 3261 GiG 10 29 01.480 -44 39 24.48   11.91 11.02 11.8 11.5 ~ 74 0
47 NGC 3275 EmG 10 30 51.7808761828 -36 44 13.196891773   12.54   11.12   ~ 55 0
48 NGC 3319 SyG 10 39 09.533 +41 41 12.74   11.48 11.07     ~ 286 1
49 NGC 3338 SyG 10 42 07.5366538676 +13 44 49.172144392   12.1       ~ 229 0
50 NGC 3423 AGN 10 51 14.3251993940 +05 50 24.171980875   12.1       ~ 155 0
51 NGC 3504 LIN 11 03 11.191 +27 58 20.77   13.48 12.93     ~ 493 2
52 NGC 3513 GiP 11 03 46.080 -23 14 43.73   12.16   11.11   ~ 112 0
53 NGC 3583 GiP 11 14 10.979 +48 19 06.16   11.6       ~ 181 1
54 NGC 3596 H2G 11 15 06.2072163849 +14 47 13.281853556   12.01 11.49 10.99 10.45 ~ 178 0
55 NGC 3646 GiP 11 21 43.107 +20 10 10.35 11.76 11.78 11.13     ~ 135 1
56 NGC 3675 GiG 11 26 08.584 +43 35 09.30   11.04   9.57   ~ 269 1
57 NGC 3684 GiP 11 27 11.173 +17 01 49.12   12.1       ~ 161 0
58 NGC 3686 GiP 11 27 43.942 +17 13 26.61   11.6       ~ 179 0
59 NGC 3705 GiG 11 30 07.456 +09 16 35.87 12.00 11.86 11.07     ~ 157 1
60 NGC 3726 GiG 11 33 21.1357515876 +47 01 45.260627622   11.11   10.02   ~ 331 0
61 NGC 3810 GiG 11 40 58.75368 +11 28 16.0824   11.4       M0e 316 1
62 NGC 3885 EmG 11 46 46.509 -27 55 19.85 12.19 12.68 11.89 11.46   ~ 120 1
63 NGC 3887 G 11 47 04.563 -16 51 16.71   11.4   10.37 10.9 ~ 135 0
64 NGC 3893 GiP 11 48 38.207 +48 42 38.84   11.23 10.67     ~ 344 1
65 NGC 3938 GiG 11 52 49.453 +44 07 14.63 10.80 10.90 10.38     ~ 484 1
66 NGC 3949 GiG 11 53 41.7329679734 +47 51 31.426105104   10.9       ~ 309 1
67 NGC 4027 IG 11 59 30.168 -19 15 54.62   11.71 11.10 10.60 11.5 ~ 235 1
68 NGC 4030 GiP 12 00 23.6122434029 -01 06 00.223672461   11.42   10.3 10.4 ~ 304 1
69 NGC 4051 Sy1 12 03 09.6098828919 +44 31 52.693714606   11.08 12.92 9.94   ~ 2038 1
70 NGC 4062 EmG 12 04 03.8088012817 +31 53 44.492255334   11.90 11.21 10.62 10.03 ~ 242 0
71 NGC 4123 AGN 12 08 11.082 +02 52 41.91   13.1       ~ 316 1
72 NGC 4145 GiP 12 10 01.524 +39 53 01.90   12.2       ~ 149 0
73 NGC 4151 Sy1 12 10 32.5771747733 +39 24 21.057727323   12.18 11.48     ~ 3450 2
74 NGC 4212 H2G 12 15 39.3406580208 +13 54 05.424965126   11.9       ~ 295 0
75 M 99 H2G 12 18 49.625 +14 24 59.36 10.45 10.44 9.87     ~ 796 2
76 NGC 4293 LIN 12 21 12.891 +18 22 56.64   11.6       ~ 260 2
77 M 61 Sy2 12 21 54.9275149050 +04 28 25.588335799 10.07 10.18 9.65     ~ 903 2
78 NGC 4314 LIN 12 22 31.978 +29 53 43.09 11.72 11.43 10.58     ~ 458 1
79 NGC 4394 GiP 12 25 55.6370604801 +18 12 50.115665445   11.9       ~ 339 0
80 NGC 4414 GiG 12 26 27.089 +31 13 24.76 11.12 10.96 10.12     ~ 525 2
81 NAME Vir I ClG 12 26 32.1 +12 43 24   10.00 8.49     ~ 6036 0
82 NGC 4450 LIN 12 28 29.634 +17 05 05.82   10.90 10.08     ~ 519 1
83 NGC 4490 GiP 12 30 36.368 +41 38 37.07 10.03 10.22 9.79     ~ 538 3
84 NGC 4487 GiG 12 31 04.4737580846 -08 03 14.545380600   11.7   11.9 11.6 ~ 158 0
85 NGC 4527 GiP 12 34 08.496 +02 39 13.72   12.4       ~ 501 2
86 M 91 LIN 12 35 26.430 +14 29 46.75   14.63 13.57     ~ 537 0
87 NGC 4593 Sy1 12 39 39.4435521178 -05 20 39.035028119   13.95 13.15     ~ 976 0
88 NGC 4618 GiP 12 41 32.8926165605 +41 09 03.051998352 11.03 11.22 10.78     ~ 300 2
89 NGC 4643 LIN 12 43 20.134 +01 58 42.24   11.9       ~ 247 0
90 NGC 4647 H2G 12 43 32.542 +11 34 56.89   12.5 12.5     ~ 386 0
91 NGC 4651 LIN 12 43 42.627 +16 23 36.23   11.30 10.92 10.42 9.84 ~ 475 0
92 NGC 4654 GiP 12 43 56.638 +13 07 34.86   11.8       ~ 515 1
93 NGC 4664 GiG 12 45 05.9996914142 +03 03 20.762799716   11.50 10.50     ~ 159 1
94 NGC 4689 H2G 12 47 45.5568267764 +13 45 46.148221803   12.8       ~ 345 0
95 NGC 4691 AGN 12 48 13.60 -03 19 57.7 11.59 11.66 11.08 11.8 11.3 ~ 229 1
96 NGC 4698 Sy2 12 48 22.9112380605 +08 29 14.648866444   13.24 12.27     ~ 451 0
97 NGC 4699 GiG 12 49 02.186 -08 39 51.49   10.8   10.01 10.3 ~ 194 0
98 NGC 4772 LIN 12 53 29.1636622578 +02 10 06.133021648 12.29 11.96 11.04     ~ 226 1
99 NGC 4775 GiG 12 53 45.707 -06 37 19.73   12.3   11.19 12.0 ~ 147 0
100 NGC 4781 GiG 12 54 23.7742249089 -10 32 13.798659852   11.8   11.28 11.7 ~ 124 0
101 NGC 4818 SBG 12 56 48.907 -08 31 31.08   11   10.88   ~ 140 0
102 NGC 4856 GiG 12 59 21.2418996607 -15 02 31.304095022   11   10.72   ~ 77 0
103 NGC 4902 GiP 13 00 59.725 -14 30 49.27   12.0   10.86 11.4 ~ 139 0
104 NGC 4930 GiG 13 04 05.26607 -41 24 41.7280           ~ 59 0
105 NGC 4941 Sy2 13 04 13.1053484000 -05 33 05.754194531   13.18 12.23 10.74   ~ 318 0
106 NGC 4939 Sy2 13 04 14.3281622249 -10 20 22.316482221   14.81 13.80 10.92   ~ 272 1
107 NGC 4995 GiG 13 09 40.653 -07 50 00.21   12   10.94   ~ 117 0
108 NGC 5054 GiP 13 16 58.488 -16 38 05.46   11.3   10.36 10.7 ~ 177 1
109 NGC 5085 GiG 13 20 17.9 -24 26 25   11.99 11.12 10.62 11.0 ~ 89 0
110 NGC 5101 G 13 21 46.242 -27 25 49.87   11.26 10.47 9.87 10.5 ~ 171 0
111 NGC 5121 G 13 24 45.590 -37 40 55.99   12.54 11.41 10.82 11.8 ~ 69 0
112 NGC 5161 EmG 13 29 13.909 -33 10 25.82   12.13 11.00 10.91 11.6 ~ 100 0
113 NGC 5247 GiG 13 38 03.0179394007 -17 53 02.635368748   10.77   9.96 10.5 ~ 205 0
114 NGC 5390 LIN 13 55 40.023 +40 27 42.37   12.81 11.93 10.04   ~ 327 1
115 APG 271 IG 14 03 25.45 -06 02 59.9           ~ 209 0
116 NGC 5427 GiP 14 03 26.0408351752 -06 01 50.688001474   14.67 13.96 11.54   ~ 277 0
117 NGC 5483 GiG 14 10 25.0457425835 -43 19 28.713521522   11.86 11.38 10.62 11.4 ~ 68 0
118 IC 4444 rG 14 31 38.6713331932 -43 25 05.990651770   12.25 11.55 11.08 12.2 ~ 60 0
119 NGC 5643 Sy2 14 32 40.778 -44 10 28.60   11.03 13.60 9.92 10.6 ~ 477 0
120 NGC 5676 GiG 14 32 46.853 +49 27 28.11   11.7       ~ 241 1
121 NGC 5701 GiG 14 39 11.0762411300 +05 21 48.498854025 12.03 11.76 10.88     ~ 226 1
122 NGC 5713 GiP 14 40 11.528 -00 17 21.16 11.88 11.84 11.20     ~ 363 2
123 NGC 5850 LIN 15 07 07.676 +01 32 39.41   11.5   10.79 11.1 ~ 292 1
124 NGC 5921 G 15 21 56.561 +05 04 13.94   12.7       ~ 261 0
125 NGC 5962 GiP 15 36 31.6808963190 +16 36 27.929023082 12.04 11.98 11.34     ~ 229 1
126 NGC 6215 GiG 16 51 06.811 -58 59 36.46   11.63 11.28 10.25 11.7 ~ 103 0
127 NGC 6221 Sy2 16 52 46.329 -59 13 00.99   10.90 13.45 9.68 10.4 ~ 284 0
128 ESO 138-10 GiG 16 59 02.952 -60 12 57.67   11.57   10.52 10.7 ~ 55 0
129 NGC 6300 Sy2 17 16 59.473 -62 49 13.98   10.88 13.08 9.44 10.2 ~ 373 0
130 NGC 6384 G 17 32 24.302 +07 03 36.97   13.2       ~ 293 0
131 NGC 6753 GiG 19 11 23.635 -57 02 58.44   11.84 11.04 10.31 11.0 ~ 145 0
132 NGC 6782 GiG 19 23 57.935 -59 55 21.04   12.70 11.84 11.27 11.7 ~ 114 1
133 NGC 6902 GiG 20 24 28.0654195725 -43 39 12.429965263 11.73 11.82 10.93 10.59 11.4 ~ 112 1
134 NGC 6907 G 20 25 06.9 -24 48 38   11.91 11.30 10.47 11.3 ~ 160 2
135 NGC 7083 GiG 21 35 44.6354652924 -63 54 10.200457416   11.93 11.04 10.81 11.5 ~ 173 0
136 NGC 7217 LIN 22 07 52.368 +31 21 33.32   12.94 11.92     ~ 468 0
137 NGC 7205 G 22 08 34.270 -57 26 33.15   11.77   10.63 11.1 ~ 105 0
138 NGC 7213 Sy1 22 09 16.2106632887 -47 10 00.082166299   10.97 12.08 10.50 10.6 ~ 610 0
139 NGC 7412 GiG 22 55 45.7651763342 -42 38 31.058747966   11.82 11.38 12.0 11.4 ~ 106 0
140 NGC 7479 Sy2 23 04 56.668 +12 19 22.36 11.74 11.60 10.85 10.47 9.66 ~ 690 2
141 NGC 7552 GiP 23 16 10.767 -42 35 05.39 11.34 11.22 10.57 10.08 11.1 ~ 515 3
142 IC 5325 GiG 23 28 43.4233727817 -41 19 59.731959446 11.80 11.89 11.27 10.73 11.5 ~ 96 1
143 NGC 7723 GiP 23 38 57.092 -12 57 39.68   11   10.78   ~ 180 0
144 NGC 7727 GiP 23 39 53.870 -12 17 34.84   11   10.55   ~ 160 0
145 NGC 7741 GiP 23 43 54.375 +26 04 32.07 11.70 11.84 11.31     ~ 274 1

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2021.05.15-23:51:36

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