Astrophys. J., 701, 163-175 (2009/August-2)
High-precision C17O, C18O, and C16O measurements in young stellar objects: analogues for co self-shielding in the early solar system.
SMITH R.L., PONTOPPIDAN K.M., YOUNG E.D., MORRIS M.R. and VAN DISHOECK E.F.
Abstract (from CDS):
Using very high resolution (λ/Δλ ~ 95 000) 4.7 µm fundamental and 2.3 µm overtone rovibrational CO absorption spectra obtained with the Cryogenic Infrared Echelle Spectrograph infrared spectrometer on the Very Large Telescope (VLT), we report detections of four CO isotopologues–C16O, 13CO, C18O, and the rare species, C17O–in the circumstellar environment of two young protostars: VV CrA, a binary T Tauri star in the Corona Australis molecular cloud, and Reipurth 50, an intermediate-mass FU Ori star in the Orion Molecular Cloud. We argue that the observed CO absorption lines probe a protoplanetary disk in VV CrA, and a protostellar envelope in Reipurth 50. All CO line profiles are spectrally resolved, with intrinsic line widths of ~3-4 km/s (FWHM), permitting direct calculation of CO oxygen isotopologue ratios with 5%-10% accuracy. The rovibrational level populations for all species can be reproduced by assuming that CO absorption arises in two temperature regimes. In the higher temperature regime, in which the column densities are best determined, the derived oxygen isotope ratios in VV CrA are: [C16O]/[C18O] =690±30; [C16O]/[C17O] =2800±300, and [C18O]/[C17O]=4.1±0.4. For Reipurth 50, we find [C16O]/[C18O] =490±30; [C16O]/[C17O] =2200±150, [C18O]/[C17O] = 4.4±0.2. For both objects, 12C/13C are on the order of 100, nearly twice the expected interstellar medium (ISM) ratio. The derived oxygen abundance ratios for the VV CrA disk show a significant mass-independent deficit of C17O and C18O relative to C16O compared to ISM baseline abundances. The Reipurth 50 envelope shows no clear differences in oxygen CO isotopologue ratios compared with the local ISM. A mass-independent fractionation can be interpreted as being due to selective photodissociation of CO in the disk surface due to self-shielding. The deficits in C17 O and C18 O in the VV CrA protoplanetary disk are consistent with an analogous origin of the 16O variability in the solar system by isotope selective photodissociation, confirmation of which may be obtained via study of additional sources. The higher fractionation observed for the VV CrA disk compared with the Reipurth 50 envelope is likely due to a combination of disk geometry, grain growth, and vertical mixing processes.
astrochemistry - circumstellar matter - ISM: abundances - planetary systems: protoplanetary disks - stars: individual (VV CrA, Reipurth 50)
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