Diagnostic line emission from extreme ultraviolet and x-ray-illuminated disks and shocks around low-mass stars.
HOLLENBACH D. and GORTI U.
Abstract (from CDS):
Extreme ultraviolet (EUV; 13.6 eV <hν ≲ 100 eV) and X-rays in the 0.1-2 keV band can heat the surfaces of disks around young, low-mass stars to thousands of degrees and ionize species with ionization potentials greater than 13.6 eV. Shocks generated by protostellar winds can also heat and ionize the same species close to the star/disk system. These processes produce diagnostic lines (e.g., [Ne II] 12.8 µm and [O I] 6300 Å) that we model as functions of key parameters such as EUV luminosity and spectral shape, X-ray luminosity and spectral shape, and wind mass loss rate and shock speed. Comparing our models with observations, we conclude that either internal shocks in the winds or X-rays incident on the disk surfaces often produce the observed [Ne II] line, although there are cases where EUV may dominate. Shocks created by the oblique interaction of winds with disks are unlikely [Ne II] sources because these shocks are too weak to ionize Ne. Even if [Ne II] is mainly produced by X-rays or internal wind shocks, the neon observations typically place upper limits of ≲1042/s on the EUV photon luminosity of these young low-mass stars. The observed [O I] 6300 Å line has both a low velocity component (LVC) and a high velocity component. The latter likely arises in internal wind shocks. For the former we find that X-rays likely produce more [O I] luminosity than either the EUV layer, the transition layer between the EUV and X-ray layer, or the shear layer where the protostellar wind shocks and entrains disk material in a radial flow across the surface of the disk. Our soft X-ray models produce [O I] LVCs with luminosities up to 10–4 L☉, but may not be able to explain the most luminous LVCs.