2011A&A...530A..10Q


Query : 2011A&A...530A..10Q

2011A&A...530A..10Q - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 530A, 10-10 (2011/6-1)

Characteristics of thick disks formed through minor mergers: stellar excesses and scale lengths.

QU Y., DI MATTEO P., LEHNERT M.D. and VAN DRIEL W.

Abstract (from CDS):

By means of a series of N-body/SPH simulations we investigate the morphological properties of thick stellar disks formed through minor mergers with, e.g. a range of gas-to-stellar mass ratios. We show that the vertical surface density profile of the post-merger thick disk follows a sech function and has an excess in the regions furthest away from the disk mid-plane (z> 2 kpc). This stellar excess also follows a sech function with a larger scale height than the main thick disk component (except at large radii). It is usually dominated by stars from the primary galaxy, but this depends on the orbital configuration. Stars in the excess have a rotational velocity lower than that of stars in the thick disk, and they may thus be confused with stars in the inner galactic halo, which can have a similar lag. Confirming previous results, the thick disk scale height increases with radius and the rate of its increase is smaller for more gas rich primary galaxies. On the contrary, the scale height of the stellar excess is independent of both radius and gas fraction. We also find that the post-merger thick disk has a radial scale length which is 10-50% larger than that of the thin disk. Two consecutive mergers have basically the same effect on heating the stellar disk as a single merger of the same total mass, i.e., the disk heating effect of a few consecutive mergers does not saturate but is cumulative. To investigate how thick disks produced through secular processes may differ from those produced by minor mergers, we also simulated gravitationally unstable gas-rich disks (``clumpy disks''). These clumpy disks do not produce either a stellar excess or a ratio of thick to thin disk scale lengths greater than one. Comparing our simulation results with observations of the Milky Way and nearby galaxies shows that our results for minor mergers are consistent with observations of the ratio of thick to thin disk scale lengths and with the ``Toomre diagram'' (the sum in quadrature of the vertical and radial versus the rotational kinetic energies) of the Milky Way. The simulations of clumpy disks do not show such agreement. We conclude that minor mergers are a viable mechanism for the creation of galactic thick disks and investigating stars at several kpc above the mid-plane of the Milky Way and other galaxies may provide a quantitative method for studying the (minor) merger history of galaxies.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): galaxies: interactions - galaxies: formation - galaxies: evolution - galaxies: structure - galaxies: kinematics and dynamics

Simbad objects: 1

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Number of rows : 1
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2021
#notes
1 NGC 4244 GiG 12 17 29.659 +37 48 25.60   10.71   9.99   ~ 522 1

Query : 2011A&A...530A..10Q

Basic data :
NGC 4244 -- Galaxy in Group of Galaxies
Origin of the objects types :

(Ref) Object type as listed in the reference "Ref"
(acronym) Object type linked to the acronym according to the original reference
() Anterior to 2007, before we can link the objet type to a reference, or given by the CDS team in some particular cases

Other object types:
G (2014AJ,AGC,...), GiG (2007ApJ,[CHM2007]), IR (IRAS,ISOSS), HI ([KOV2009]), X (2E)
Syntax of coordinates is : "ra dec (wtype) [error ellipse] quality bibcode" :
  • ra dec : right ascension and declination (unit and frame defined according to your Output Options)
    Grey values are increasing the original precision due to the computation of frame transformations
  • (wtype) : wavelength class for the origin of the coordinates (Rad, mm, IR, Optical, UV, Xray, Gam)
  • [error ellipse] : measurement uncertainty, on (ra,dec) if the positional angle is 90 degrees, on (majaxis,minaxis) otherwise (in mas at defined epoch in the original catalogue),
    position angle (in degrees North celestial pole to East)
  • quality : flag of quality
    • E ≥ 10"
    • D : 1-10" (and some old data)
    • C : 0.1-1"
    • B : 0.01-0.1" + 2MASS, Tyc
    • A : VLBI, Hipparcos
  • bibcode : bibcode of the coordinates reference
ICRS coord. (ep=J2000) :
12 17 29.659 +37 48 25.60 (Infrared) [ ] C 2006AJ....131.1163S
Syntax of coordinates is : "ra dec (wtype) [error ellipse] quality bibcode" :
  • ra dec : right ascension and declination (unit and frame defined according to your Output Options)
    Grey values are increasing the original precision due to the computation of frame transformations
  • (wtype) : wavelength class for the origin of the coordinates (Rad, mm, IR, Optical, UV, Xray, Gam)
  • [error ellipse] : measurement uncertainty, on (ra,dec) if the positional angle is 90 degrees, on (majaxis,minaxis) otherwise (in mas at defined epoch in the original catalogue),
    position angle (in degrees North celestial pole to East)
  • quality : flag of quality
    • E ≥ 10"
    • D : 1-10" (and some old data)
    • C : 0.1-1"
    • B : 0.01-0.1" + 2MASS, Tyc
    • A : VLBI, Hipparcos
  • bibcode : bibcode of the coordinates reference
FK4 coord. (ep=B1950 eq=1950) :
12 14 59.592 +38 05 05.11 [ ]
Syntax of coordinates is : "ra dec (wtype) [error ellipse] quality bibcode" :
  • ra dec : right ascension and declination (unit and frame defined according to your Output Options)
    Grey values are increasing the original precision due to the computation of frame transformations
  • (wtype) : wavelength class for the origin of the coordinates (Rad, mm, IR, Optical, UV, Xray, Gam)
  • [error ellipse] : measurement uncertainty, on (ra,dec) if the positional angle is 90 degrees, on (majaxis,minaxis) otherwise (in mas at defined epoch in the original catalogue),
    position angle (in degrees North celestial pole to East)
  • quality : flag of quality
    • E ≥ 10"
    • D : 1-10" (and some old data)
    • C : 0.1-1"
    • B : 0.01-0.1" + 2MASS, Tyc
    • A : VLBI, Hipparcos
  • bibcode : bibcode of the coordinates reference
Gal coord. (ep=J2000) :
154.567616 +77.157096 [ ]
Syntax of radial velocity (or/and redshift) is : "value [error] (wavelength) quality bibcode"
  • value : radial velocity or/and redshift (Heliocentric frame) according to your Output Options
    (redshift may be not displayed if the data value is <0 and the database inside value is a radial velocity)
  • [error] : error of the corresponding value displayed before
  • (wavelength) : wavelength range of the measurement : Rad, mm, IR, Opt, UV, Xray, Gam or  '∼'(unknown)
  • quality : flag of quality ( A=best quality -> E=worst quality, {� } =unknown quality)
  • bibcode : bibcode of the value's origin
Radial velocity / Redshift / cz :
V(km/s) 244 [8] / z(~) 0.000814 [0.000027] / cz 244.10 [8.00]
   D 2011MNRAS.416.2840L
Syntax of morphological type is : mtype quality bibcode
  • mtype : Hubble morphological class (spirals, ellipticals, etc)
  • quality : flag of quality (A=best quality -> E=worst quality, {� } =unknown quality)
  • bibcode : bibcode of the morphological type reference
Morphological type:
S C 2019MNRAS.488..590B
Syntax of angular size is : "maj-axis min-axis angle (wtype) quality bibcode"
  • maj-axis : major axis size (arc minutes)
  • min-axis : minor axis size (arc minutes)
  • angle : orientation angle (in degrees)
  • (wtype) : wavelength class for the origin of the angular size (Rad, mm, IR, Opt, UV, Xray, Gam)
  • quality : flag of quality of the angular size values ( A=best quality -> E=worst quality, {� } =unknown quality)
  • bibcode : bibcode of the angular size reference
Angular size (arcmin):
15.85 6.31 41 (Opt) D 2003A&A...412...45P
Syntax of fluxes (or magnitudes) is : "filter-name (System) flux-value [error] quality MultVarFlags bibcode"
  • filter-name : U, B, V, R, I, G, J, H, K, u, g, r, i, z
  • (System) : may be AB (default is Vega)
  • flux-value : value of flux or magnitude
  • [error] : error value
  • quality : flag of quality of the flux value ( A=best quality -> E=worst quality, {� } =unknown quality)
  • MultVarFlags : Mult is zero or one char (J) for joined photometry ; Var can be zero or two chars (V[0-4])
  • bibcode : bibcode of the flux reference
Fluxes (10) :
B (AB) 10.71 [0.03] C 2014MNRAS.445..881C
R (AB) 9.99 [0.03] C 2014MNRAS.445..881C
J 8.564 [0.027] C 2006AJ....131.1163S
H 7.978 [0.033] C 2006AJ....131.1163S
K 7.724 [0.046] C 2006AJ....131.1163S
u (AB) 13.940 [0.006] C 2009ApJS..182..543A
g (AB) 12.616 [0.002] C 2009ApJS..182..543A
r (AB) 12.018 [0.002] C 2009ApJS..182..543A
i (AB) 11.689 [0.002] C 2009ApJS..182..543A
z (AB) 11.470 [0.003] C 2009ApJS..182..543A
SIMBAD within arcmin
', {sourceSize:12, color:'#30a090'})); aladin.on('objectClicked', function(object) { var objName=object.data.MAIN_ID; aladin.showPopup(object.ra,object.dec,'',''+ objName+''); });" title="Show Simbad objects"> Overlay Simbad points in this preview
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within arcsec The VizieR photometry tool allows for easy visualization of photometry points extracted around the Simbad position from photometry-enabled catalogues in VizieR.
The search radius has to be specified by the user. It is currently limited to a maximum of 30 arcsec. It depends mostly on the precision or quality of the coordinates (SIMBAD and VizieR catalogs), the resolution of the images from which the sources were extracted, source extent, and source crowding.
Suggestions are: crowded field: 0.5 to 1.5 arcsec, 3 arcsec otherwise; uncertain coordinates (SIMBAD quality E or coordinates without reference): 5 to 30 arsec (risky!).
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Some important notes on this object about identifications and objects associations.
notes:


Hierarchy : number of linked objects
whatever the membership probability is (see description here ) :

: 6
The count displayed here is the number of children objects.
The list obtained by clicking the button may be larger, as some children may be linked with different references or probability.

%This number is the number of distinct objets linked, by using this button, you will obtain all links (may be more than one) from that object to his children

: 3
: 155 Display criteria :

The link on the acronym of the identifiers give access to the information for this acronym in the dictionary of nomenclature.
Identifiers (24) :
An access of full data is available using the icon Vizier near the identifier of the catalogue

NGC 4244 ISOSS J12173+3747 SDSS J121729.43+374826.4 [CHM2007] HDC 706 J121729.65+3748255
AGC 29932 LEDA 39422 TC 777 [CHM2007] LDC 867 J121729.65+3748255
2E 2636 LJHY 32 UGC 7322 [KOV2009] 69
2E 1214.4+3800 2MASX J12172965+3748255 UZC J121729.0+374819 [M98c] 121459.9+380506
FGC 1402 MCG+06-27-045 Z 1215.0+3805 [SLK2004] 679
IRAS F12149+3805A RFGC 2245 Z 187-35 [VDD93] 152

References (522 between 1850 and 2021) (Total 522)
Simbad bibliographic survey began in 1850 for stars (at least bright stars) and in 1983 for all other objects (outside the solar system).
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Collections of Measurements


velocities : 14    distance : 10   

   

Observing logs


herschel : 6    ISO : 5    IUE : 4   

   


External archives :

Archive data at HEASARC - High-Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center

Data at NED - NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database : NGC 4244

Link by name to the catalogue in VizieR :

NGC 4244 2E 2636 FGC 1402 IRAS F12149+3805A 2MASX J12172965+3748255
RFGC 2245 SDSS J121729.43+374826.4 UGC 7322

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2021.09.18-00:25:20

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