A highly collimated water maser bipolar outflow in the Cepheus A HW3d massive young stellar object.
CHIBUEZE J.O., IMAI H., TAFOYA D., OMODAKA T., KAMEYA O., HIROTA T., CHONG S.-N. and TORRELLES J.M.
Abstract (from CDS):
We present the results of multi-epoch very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) water (H2O) maser observations carried out with the VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry toward the Cepheus A HW3d object. We measured for the first time relative proper motions of the H2 O maser features, whose spatio-kinematics traces a compact bipolar outflow. This outflow looks highly collimated and expanding through ∼280 AU (400 mas) at a mean velocity of ∼21 km/s (∼6 mas/yr) without taking into account the turbulent central maser cluster. The opening angle of the outflow is estimated to be ∼30°. The dynamical timescale of the outflow is estimated to be ∼100 years. Our results provide strong support that HW3d harbors an internal massive young star, and the observed outflow could be tracing a very early phase of star formation. We also have analyzed Very Large Array archive data of 1.3 cm continuum emission obtained in 1995 and 2006 toward Cepheus A. The comparative result of the HW3d continuum emission suggests the possibility of the existence of distinct young stellar objects in HW3d and/or strong variability in one of their radio continuum emission components.
ISM: individual: Cepheus A - ISM: jets and outflows - masers - stars: formation