2012MNRAS.427.3468B


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2021.06.23CEST14:12:36

2012MNRAS.427.3468B - Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 427, 3468-3488 (2012/December-3)

The duty cycle of radio-mode feedback in complete samples of clusters.

BIRZAN L., RAFFERTY D.A., NULSEN P.E.J., McNAMARA B.R., ROTTGERING H.J.A., WISE M.W. and MITTAL R.

Abstract (from CDS):

The Chandra X-ray Observatory has revealed X-ray bubbles in the intracluster medium (ICM) of many nearby cooling-flow clusters. The bubbles trace feedback that is thought to couple the central active galactic nucleus (AGN) to the ICM, helping to stabilize cooling flows and govern the evolution of massive galaxies. However, the prevalence and duty cycle of such AGN outbursts is not well understood. To this end, we study how cooling is balanced by bubble heating for complete samples of clusters (the Brightest 55 clusters of galaxies, hereafter B55, and the HIghest X-ray FLUx Galaxy Cluster Sample, HIFLUGCS). We find that the radio luminosity of the central galaxy only exceeds 2.5 x 1030erg/s/Hz in cooling-flow clusters. This result implies a connection between the central radio source and the ICM, as expected if AGN feedback is operating. Additionally, we find a duty cycle for radio-mode feedback, the fraction of time that a system possesses bubbles inflated by its central radio source, of ≳ 69 per cent for the B55 and ≳ 63 per cent for the HIFLUGCS. These duty cycles are lower limits since some bubbles are likely missed in existing images. We used simulations to constrain the bubble power that might be present and remain undetected in the cooling-flow systems without detected bubbles. Among theses systems, almost all could have significant bubble power. Therefore, our results imply that the duty cycle of AGN outbursts with the potential to heat the gas significantly in cooling-flow clusters is at least 60per cent and could approach 100per cent.

Abstract Copyright: © 2012 The Authors Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society © 2012 RAS

Journal keyword(s): radio continuum: galaxies - X-rays: galaxies: clusters

Simbad objects: 177

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Number of rows : 177

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2021
#notes
1 ACO 32 ClG 00 26 56 -09 06.4           ~ 5 0
2 ACO 37 ClG 00 27 56 -10 31.4           ~ 6 0
3 ACO 76 ClG 00 40 16.1031 +06 52 46.226           ~ 129 2
4 ACO 79 ClG 00 40 37 +18 08.5           ~ 19 0
5 ACO 82 ClG 00 41 19.500 +25 26 18.90           ~ 18 0
6 ACO 83 ClG 00 41 24 +14 02.4           ~ 6 0
7 ACO 85 ClG 00 41 37.8 -09 20 33           ~ 816 0
8 MCG-02-02-086 BiC 00 41 50.451 -09 18 11.46   14 13.52 12.94   ~ 117 1
9 ACO 86 ClG 00 42 28 -21 47.6           ~ 35 0
10 ACO 119 ClG 00 56 16.8 -01 15 00           ~ 531 2
11 LEDA 73498 GiC 00 56 17.9003408886 -01 15 43.695558404           ~ 8 0
12 ACO 123 ClG 00 58 23 -14 23.8           ~ 17 0
13 ACO 133 ClG 01 02 39.0 -21 57 15           ~ 346 1
14 ESO 541-13 BiC 01 02 41.771 -21 52 55.75   14.54 15.1 12.94   ~ 73 3
15 ACO 148 ClG 01 07 59 -13 11.0           ~ 7 0
16 NGC 507 BiC 01 23 39.950 +33 15 22.22   13.0       ~ 400 3
17 NAME NGC 507 Group GrG 01 23.7 +33 15           ~ 73 0
18 NGC 708 BiC 01 52 46.482 +36 09 06.53 14.85 14.27 13.29 12.67 12.09 ~ 216 3
19 ACO 262 ClG 01 52 50.4 +36 08 46           ~ 662 1
20 NGC 1129 BiC 02 54 27.400 +41 34 46.70   14.6 13.6     ~ 107 1
21 2MAXI J0254+416 ClG 02 54 32.2 +41 35 10           ~ 299 1
22 ACO 400 ClG 02 57 37.4 +06 00 45           ~ 387 3
23 NAME 3C 75A BiC 02 57 41.565 +06 01 36.89   14.7       ~ 58 2
24 3C 75 PaG 02 57 41.64 +06 01 28.0           ~ 287 1
25 NAME 3C 75B BiC 02 57 41.651 +06 01 20.78   14.7       ~ 32 1
26 UGC 2438 BiC 02 57 53.087 +13 01 50.87   16.5       ~ 19 0
27 ACO 399 ClG 02 57 56.4 +13 00 59           ~ 357 0
28 ACO 401 ClG 02 58 56.9 +13 34 56           ~ 528 0
29 UGC 2450 BiC 02 58 57.818 +13 34 58.33   15.24       ~ 26 0
30 ACO 3112 ClG 03 17 52.4 -44 14 35           ~ 292 1
31 ESO 248-6 QSO 03 17 57.6794446 -44 14 17.165338   14.85   13.16   ~ 65 3
32 ACO 426 ClG 03 19 47.2 +41 30 47           ~ 2016 1
33 3C 84 Sy2 03 19 48.1597607660 +41 30 42.114155434   13.10 12.48 11.09   ~ 3652 3
34 NGC 1399 BiC 03 38 29.083 -35 27 02.67 11.05 9.74 9.59 8.12   ~ 1483 1
35 ACO S 373 ClG 03 38 30 -35 27.3           ~ 1619 0
36 ZwCl 0335+0956 ClG 03 38 35.3 +09 57 54           ~ 353 1
37 2MASX J03384056+0958119 LIN 03 38 40.568 +09 58 11.94   16.5       ~ 38 1
38 NAME III ZW 54 Group ClG 03 41 16.9 +15 24 27           ~ 39 0
39 2MASX J03411752+1523477 BiC 03 41 17.5325964402 +15 23 47.585740854   17.5       ~ 42 1
40 ACO 3158 ClG 03 42 39.6 -53 37 50           ~ 278 0
41 6dFGS gJ034253.0-533753 BiC 03 42 52.952 -53 37 52.69   16.15       ~ 23 1
42 ESO 156-8 BiC 03 43 00.486 -53 38 17.68   15.55   13.64   ~ 33 2
43 ACO 478 ClG 04 13 20.7 +10 28 35           ~ 478 0
44 2MASX J04132526+1027551 BiC 04 13 25.266 +10 27 55.14           ~ 22 1
45 NGC 1550 BiC 04 19 37.921 +02 24 35.58   14.0       ~ 159 1
46 NAME NGC 1550 Group ClG 04 19 38.0 +02 24 36           ~ 39 0
47 ClG 0422-09 ClG 04 25 51.02 -08 33 38.5           ~ 88 0
48 MCG-01-12-005 Sy2 04 25 51.336 -08 33 38.98   15.5   16.9   ~ 40 2
49 ACO 3266 ClG 04 31 11.9 -61 24 23           ~ 379 0
50 ESO 118-30 IG 04 31 12.8 -61 27 09           ~ 18 1
51 ACO 496 ClG 04 33 30.3838 -13 14 21.584           ~ 667 2
52 NAME A496cD BiC 04 33 37.841 -13 15 43.04   13.95 14.22     ~ 95 1
53 ACO 500 ClG 04 38 55.0 -22 05 55           ~ 77 0
54 RXC J0450.0+4501 ClG 04 50 03.5 +45 01 27           ~ 38 1
55 LEDA 16124 G 04 50 06.685 +45 03 05.74   19       ~ 64 1
56 ACO 3376 ClG 06 01 25.000 -39 59 51.00           ~ 278 0
57 2MASX J06020973-3956597 BiC 06 02 09.732 -39 56 59.72   14   13.93   ~ 22 0
58 ACO 3391 ClG 06 26 15.4 -53 40 52           ~ 175 1
59 ESO 161-7 IG 06 26 21.5 -53 41 09   14.48 15.4 15.16   ~ 70 2
60 [HJ96] A3395S ClG 06 26 46.1 -54 32 43           ~ 4 0
61 LEDA 19057 LIN 06 26 49.581 -54 32 34.07   15.83 16 13.52   ~ 39 1
62 ACO 576 ClG 07 21 24.1 +55 44 20           ~ 287 1
63 MCG+09-12-061 BiC 07 21 30.240 +55 45 41.69   15.62       ~ 23 1
64 LEDA 20784 GiC 07 21 32.5 +55 45 24           ~ 13 0
65 ZwCl 0735+7421 ClG 07 41 40.3 +74 14 58     17.70     ~ 227 0
66 2MASX J07473129-1917403 BiC 07 47 31.296 -19 17 40.34   19.60       ~ 398 1
67 ClG 0745-19 ClG 07 47 31.3 -19 17 40           ~ 366 0
68 ACO 644 ClG 08 17 24.5 -07 30 46           ~ 208 0
69 2MASX J08172559-0730455 BiC 08 17 25.598 -07 30 45.59   17.23 15.94 15.24   ~ 19 0
70 ACO 754 ClG 09 08 50.1 -09 38 12           ~ 638 1
71 2MASX J09091923-0941591 BiC 09 09 19.233 -09 41 59.13   14   14.05   ~ 26 0
72 NAME Hya A LIN 09 18 05.651 -12 05 43.99   14.38 14.8     ~ 937 1
73 ACO 780 ClG 09 18 30 -12 15.7           ~ 440 0
74 ACO 1000 ClG 10 24 54 +50 10.8           ~ 8 0
75 NGC 3309 GiG 10 36 35.651 -27 31 06.35   11.98 11.78 10.34 10.51 ~ 148 0
76 NAME Hydra I Cluster ClG 10 36 36.0 -27 31 04           ~ 786 1
77 NGC 3311 BiC 10 36 42.821 -27 31 42.02   11.93 10.93 10.00 9.67 ~ 277 2
78 ACO 1068 ClG 10 40 47.1 +39 57 19           ~ 191 0
79 NGC 3842 BiC 11 44 02.155 +19 56 59.37 14.22 13.70 11.82 12.04   ~ 259 3
80 ACO 1367 ClG 11 44 44.6 +19 41 59           ~ 1011 1
81 3C 264.0 QSO 11 45 05.0090520 +19 36 22.741257   14.98 13.97     ~ 550 2
82 NAME NGC 4073 Group GrG 12 04 21.7 +01 50 19     13.53     ~ 250 0
83 NGC 4073 BiC 12 04 27.066 +01 53 45.50   13.8 13.21 14.249   ~ 186 1
84 ZwCl 1215+0400 ClG 12 17 40.6 +03 39 45           ~ 110 0
85 2MASX J12174112+0339208 BiC 12 17 41.125 +03 39 21.05   14.94       ~ 20 1
86 M 87 BiC 12 30 49.42338230 +12 23 28.0438581 10.16 9.59 8.63   7.49 ~ 6431 3
87 NAME Virgo A Cluster ClG 12 30.8 +12 23           ~ 125 0
88 NAME NGC 4636 Group GrG 12 42 49.5 +02 41 08           ~ 551 0
89 NGC 4636 LIN 12 42 49.867 +02 41 16.01   12.62 11.84     ~ 1053 1
90 NGC 4696 BiC 12 48 49.277 -41 18 39.92   11.21   10.7   ~ 460 3
91 ACO 3526 ClG 12 48 51.8 -41 18 21           ~ 1000 2
92 2MASX J12571157-1724344 LIN 12 57 11.580 -17 24 34.47   13.50   12.56   ~ 52 2
93 ACO 1644 ClG 12 57 11.6 -17 24 34           ~ 340 1
94 ACO 3532 ClG 12 57 19.2 -30 22 13           ~ 157 2
95 2MASX J12572091-3021245 GiC 12 57 20.9416946553 -30 21 24.386864041   17.27   15.91   ~ 4 0
96 ACO 1650 ClG 12 58 36.76 -01 43 34.2           ~ 278 0
97 2dFGRS TGN256Z066 BiC 12 58 41.495 -01 45 41.02   15.93   14.14   ~ 22 0
98 ACO 1651 ClG 12 59 22.43 -04 11 47.1           ~ 277 0
99 2dFGRS TGN132Z220 BiC 12 59 22.518 -04 11 46.02   15.96   14.20   ~ 18 1
100 NGC 4874 LIN 12 59 35.709 +27 57 33.80 13.01 13.7 11.40 12.122 11.386 ~ 736 3
101 ACO 1656 ClG 12 59 48.7 +27 58 50           ~ 4362 2
102 ACO 1689 ClG 13 11 29.5 -01 20 28           ~ 1047 0
103 2MASX J13112952-0120280 BiC 13 11 29.510 -01 20 28.02   17.87 16.48 15.75 15.16 ~ 23 1
104 NAME NGC 5044 Group GrG 13 14 22.7 -16 32 04           ~ 172 0
105 NGC 5044 BiC 13 15 23.969 -16 23 08.00   11.9   10.74   ~ 463 0
106 ESO 509-9 BiC 13 26 48.728 -27 08 37.81   14.90   13.46   ~ 21 0
107 ACO 1736 ClG 13 26 52.1 -27 06 33           ~ 239 2
108 ACO 3558 ClG 13 27 54.8 -31 29 32           ~ 413 2
109 ESO 444-46 BiC 13 27 56.884 -31 29 43.71   13.88 15 12.24   ~ 71 2
110 ACO 3562 ClG 13 33 31.8 -31 40 23           ~ 291 1
111 ESO 444-72 BiC 13 33 34.739 -31 40 20.16   14.40   12.83   ~ 48 0
112 ESO 383-76 BiC 13 47 28.385 -32 51 54.02   13.02   11.53   ~ 54 1
113 ACO 3571 ClG 13 47 28.9 -32 51 57           ~ 268 2
114 MCG+05-33-005 LIN 13 48 52.511 +26 35 34.84   14.0       ~ 223 2
115 ACO 1795 ClG 13 49 00.5 +26 35 07           ~ 1185 0
116 IC 4374 QSO 14 07 29.7622884 -27 01 04.292258   13.61   11.79   ~ 125 3
117 ACO 3581 ClG 14 07 29.8 -27 01 04           ~ 168 3
118 NAME NGC 5718 Group ClG 14 40 38.5 +03 28 20     14.31     ~ 107 0
119 NGC 5718 LIN 14 40 42.835 +03 27 55.52   14.6       ~ 55 1
120 ClG J1504-0248 ClG 15 04 07.4 -02 48 15           ~ 156 0
121 2MASX J15040752-0248161 Sy1 15 04 07.519415 -02 48 16.65402   18.53 18.08     ~ 47 1
122 IC 1101 rG 15 10 56.100 +05 44 41.19   15.10       ~ 149 2
123 ACO 2029 ClG 15 10 58.7 +05 45 42           ~ 880 0
124 UGC 9799 Sy2 15 16 44.4894653562 +07 01 17.830884159   15.19 14.17     ~ 425 3
125 ACO 2052 ClG 15 16 45.5 +07 00 01           ~ 691 1
126 NAME NGC 5920 Group ClG 15 21 50.7 +07 42 18     15.13     ~ 293 0
127 NGC 5920 LIN 15 21 51.870 +07 42 31.97   15.5       ~ 122 1
128 MCG+05-36-022 rG 15 22 28.910 +27 42 44.71   17.22       ~ 16 1
129 ACO 2065 ClG 15 22 42.6 +27 43 21           ~ 350 0
130 ACO 2063 ClG 15 23 01.8 +08 38 22           ~ 376 2
131 MCG+02-39-020 BiC 15 23 05.302 +08 36 33.18   14.71       ~ 65 2
132 ACO 2142 ClG 15 58 20.00 +27 14 00.3           ~ 697 0
133 2MASX J15582002+2714000 BiC 15 58 20.000 +27 14 00.28   14.48       ~ 31 1
134 UGC 10143 BiC 16 02 17.007 +15 58 28.25   14.9       ~ 80 0
135 ACO 2147 ClG 16 02 17.2 +15 53 43           ~ 383 0
136 ACO 2163 ClG 16 15 34.1 -06 07 26           ~ 531 0
137 2MASX J16154140-0609076 rG 16 15 41.404 -06 09 07.65           ~ 6 0
138 ACO 2199 ClG 16 28 37.0 +39 31 28           ~ 1121 1
139 3C 338.0 QSO 16 28 38.2447110 +39 33 04.233634   12.78 11.78     ~ 717 5
140 ACO 2204 ClG 16 32 45.7 +05 34 43           ~ 407 0
141 NVSS J163246+053434 Rad 16 32 46.94 +05 34 32.6   16.6       ~ 10 0
142 NAME Triangulum Australis Cluster ClG 16 38 16.1 -64 20 50           ~ 109 0
143 ESO 101-4 G 16 38 18.2316160621 -64 21 36.449011690   14.66   12.64   ~ 9 1
144 UGC 10704 GiC 17 01 49.021 +79 02 15.87   15.6       ~ 21 0
145 ACO 2244 ClG 17 02 34.01 +34 04 41.1           ~ 249 0
146 2MASXI J1702424+340336 BiC 17 02 42.4909851513 +34 03 35.823596936   14.5       ~ 26 1
147 NGC 6331 GiG 17 03 35.875 +78 37 44.08   14       ~ 16 1
148 ACO 2256 ClG 17 03 43.5 +78 43 03           ~ 845 1
149 MCG+13-12-017 GiC 17 04 13.403 +78 37 43.92   16       ~ 14 1
150 UGC 10726 BiC 17 04 27.246 +78 38 26.03   15.5       ~ 28 1
151 UGC 10710 GiG 17 06 52.5404664782 +43 07 20.026364944   15.2       ~ 60 0
152 NAME Oph Cluster ClG 17 12 24.7 -23 21 01           ~ 249 0
153 2MASX J17122774-2322108 BiC 17 12 27.744 -23 22 10.82           ~ 15 0
154 2MASXI J1712287+640338 BiC 17 12 28.787 +64 03 38.69           ~ 26 1
155 NAME ZwCl 1710.4+6401 B BiC 17 12 34.995 +64 04 14.55           ~ 10 0
156 ACO 2255 ClG 17 12 50.04 +64 03 10.6           ~ 521 0
157 ACO 2319 ClG 19 20 45.3 +43 57 43           ~ 425 1
158 MCG+07-40-004 BiC 19 21 10.027 +43 56 44.22   15.3       ~ 22 1
159 NAME Cyg A Sy2 19 59 28.35645829 +40 44 02.0966496   16.22 15.10     ~ 2174 2
160 NAME Cyg A Cluster ClG 19 59 30.3 +40 44 11           ~ 133 0
161 IC 4965 BiC 20 12 27.268 -56 49 36.31   14.42   13.17   ~ 29 1
162 ACO 3667 ClG 20 12 33.68 -56 50 26.3           ~ 576 1
163 ACO S 1101 ClG 23 13 58.5 -42 43 39           ~ 240 1
164 ESO 291-9 BiC 23 13 58.630 -42 43 39.31   14.68 14.6 14.537   ~ 49 3
165 NGC 7647 BiC 23 23 57.414 +16 46 37.94   14.61 14.45     ~ 72 1
166 ACO 2589 ClG 23 24 00.5 +16 49 29           ~ 301 1
167 ACO 2597 ClG 23 25 19.70 -12 07 27.7           ~ 505 0
168 2E 4728 LIN 23 25 19.731 -12 07 27.51   15.45 15.46     ~ 169 2
169 ACO 2634 ClG 23 38 18.4 +27 01 37           ~ 487 2
170 NGC 7720 Sy1 23 38 29.38322439 +27 01 53.2583763   13.9 13.3     ~ 517 4
171 ACO 2657 ClG 23 44 51.0 +09 08 40           ~ 264 3
172 ACO 4038 ClG 23 47 31.1 -28 12 10           ~ 320 3
173 IC 5358A GiG 23 47 43.2 -28 08 38   14   0.00   ~ 22 0
174 IC 5358 BiC 23 47 45.1099462619 -28 08 26.672668925   13.42 14.72 11.99   ~ 81 1
175 2MASX J23541371-1025084 LIN 23 54 13.663 -10 25 08.48   15.32       ~ 48 2
176 ACO 4059 ClG 23 56 40.7 -34 40 18           ~ 360 1
177 ESO 349-10 QSO 23 57 00.689 -34 45 33.18   13.89 13.26 12.19   ~ 122 2

    Equat.    Gal    SGal    Ecl

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2021.06.23-14:12:36

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