An understanding of the shoulder of giants: jovian planets around late K dwarf stars and the trend with stellar mass.
GAIDOS E., FISCHER D.A., MANN A.W. and HOWARD A.W.
Abstract (from CDS):
Analyses of exoplanet statistics suggest a trend of giant planet occurrence with host star mass, a clue to how planets like Jupiter form. One missing piece of the puzzle is the occurrence around late K dwarf stars (masses of 0.5-0.75 M☉ and effective temperatures of 3900-4800 K). We analyzed four years of Doppler radial velocity (RVs) data for 110 late K dwarfs, one of which hosts two previously reported giant planets. We estimate that 4.0% ±2.3% of these stars have Saturn-mass or larger planets with orbital periods <245 days, depending on the planet mass distribution and RV variability of stars without giant planets. We also estimate that 0.7%±0.5% of similar stars observed by Kepler have giant planets. This Kepler rate is significantly (99% confidence) lower than that derived from our Doppler survey, but the difference vanishes if only the single Doppler system (HIP 57274) with completely resolved orbits is considered. The difference could also be explained by the exclusion of close binaries (without giant planets) from the Doppler but not Kepler surveys, the effect of long-period companions and stellar noise on the Doppler data, or an intrinsic difference between the two populations. Our estimates for late K dwarfs bridge those for solar-type stars and M dwarfs, and support a positive trend with stellar mass. Small sample size precludes statements about finer structure, e.g., a "shoulder" in the distribution of giant planets with stellar mass. Future surveys such as the Next Generation Transit Survey and the Transiting Exoplanet Satellite Survey will ameliorate this deficiency.
astrobiology - planetary systems - planets and satellites: formation - stars: fundamental parameters - techniques: radial velocities