Condition for capture into first-order mean motion resonances and application to constraints on the origin of resonant systems.
OGIHARA M. and KOBAYASHI H.
Abstract (from CDS):
We investigate the condition for capture into first-order mean motion resonances using numerical simulations with a wide range of various parameters. In particular, we focus on deriving the critical migration timescale for capture into the 2:1 resonance; additional numerical experiments for closely spaced resonances (e.g., 3:2) are also performed. We find that the critical migration timescale is determined by the planet-to-stellar mass ratio, and its dependence exhibits power-law behavior with index -4/3. This dependence is also supported by simple analytic arguments. We also find that the critical migration timescale for systems with equal-mass bodies is shorter than that in the restricted problem; for instance, for the 2:1 resonance between two equal-mass bodies, the critical timescale decreases by a factor of 10. In addition, using the obtained formula, the origin of observed systems that include first-order commensurabilities is constrained. Assuming that pairs of planets originally form well separated from each other and then undergo convergent migration and are captured in resonances, it is possible that a number of exoplanets experienced rapid orbital migration. For systems in closely spaced resonances, the differential migration timescale between the resonant pair can be constrained well; it is further suggested that several exoplanets underwent migration that can equal or even exceed the type I migration rate predicted by the linear theory. This implies that some of them may have formed in situ. Future observations and the use of our model will allow us to statistically determine the typical migration speed in a protoplanetary disk.