Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 432, 914-930 (2013/June-3)
Order statistics applied to the most massive and most distant galaxy clusters.
WAIZMANN J.-C., ETTORI S. and BARTELMANN M.
Abstract (from CDS):
In this work, we present an analytic framework for calculating the individual and joint distributions of the nth most massive or nth highest redshift galaxy cluster for a given survey characteristic allowing us to formulate Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) exclusion criteria. We show that the cumulative distribution functions steepen with increasing order, giving them a higher constraining power with respect to the extreme value statistics. Additionally, we find that the order statistics in mass (being dominated by clusters at lower redshifts) is sensitive to the matter density and the normalization of the matter fluctuations, whereas the order statistics in redshift is particularly sensitive to the geometric evolution of the Universe. For a fixed cosmology, both order statistics are efficient probes of the functional shape of the mass function at the high-mass end. To allow a quick assessment of both order statistics, we provide fits as a function of the survey area that allow percentile estimation with an accuracy better than 2percent. Furthermore, we discuss the joint distributions in the two-dimensional case and find that for the combination of the largest and the second largest observation, it is most likely to find them to be realized with similar values with a broadly peaked distribution. When combining the largest observation with higher orders, it is more likely to find a larger gap between the observations and when combining higher orders in general, the joint probability density function peaks more strongly. Having introduced the theory, we apply the order statistical analysis to the Southpole Telescope (SPT) massive cluster sample and metacatalogue of X-ray detected clusters of galaxies catalogue and find that the 10 most massive clusters in the sample are consistent with ΛCDM and the Tinker mass function. For the order statistics in redshift, we find a discrepancy between the data and the theoretical distributions, which could in principle indicate a deviation from the standard cosmology. However, we attribute this deviation to the uncertainty in the modelling of the SPT survey selection function. In turn, by assuming the ΛCDM reference cosmology, order statistics can also be utilized for consistency checks of the completeness of the observed sample and of the modelling of the survey selection function.
© 2013 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society (2013)
methods: statistical - galaxies: clusters: general - cosmology: miscellaneous
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