Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 437, 1378-1399 (2014/January-2)
Constraining the initial entropy of directly detected exoplanets.
MARLEAU G.-D. and CUMMING A.
Abstract (from CDS):
The post-formation, initial entropy Si of a gas giant planet is a key witness to its mass-assembly history and a crucial quantity for its early evolution. However, formation models are not yet able to predict reliably Si, making unjustified the use solely of traditional, `hot-start' cooling tracks to interpret direct-imaging results and calling for an observational determination of initial entropies to guide formation scenarios. Using a grid of models in mass and entropy, we show how to place joint constraints on the mass and initial entropy of an object from its observed luminosity and age. This generalizes the usual estimate of only a lower bound on the real mass, through hot-start tracks. Moreover, we demonstrate that with mass information, e.g. from dynamical-stability analyses or radial velocity, tighter bounds can be set on the initial entropy. We apply this procedure to 2M1207 b and find that its initial entropy is at least 9.2kB/baryon, assuming that it does not burn deuterium. For the planets of the HR 8799 system, we infer that they must have formed with Si > 9.2kB/baryon, independent of uncertainties about the age of the star. Finally, a similar analysis for β Pic b reveals that it must have formed with Si > 10.5kB/baryon, using the radial-velocity mass upper limit. These initial entropy values are, respectively, ca. 0.7, 0.5 and 1.5kB/baryon higher than the ones obtained from core-accretion models by Marley et al., thereby quantitatively ruling out the coldest starts for these objects and constraining warm starts, especially for β Pic b.
© 2013 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society (2013)
techniques: imaging spectroscopy - planets and satellites: fundamental parameters - planets and satellites: gaseous planets - stars: individual: β Pictoris - stars: individual: 2MASSWJ 1207334-393254 - stars: individual: HR 8799
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