Astrophys. J., 798, 54 (2015/January-1)
The (Black hole)-bulge mass scaling relation at low masses.
GRAHAM A.W. and SCOTT N.
Abstract (from CDS):
Several recent papers have reported on the occurrence of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) containing undermassive black holes relative to a linear scaling relation between black hole mass (Mbh) and host spheroid stellar mass (M_sph, *_). However, dramatic revisions to the Mbh-M_sph, *_ and Mbh-Lsphrelations, based on samples containing predominantly inactive galaxies, have recently identified a new steeper relation at Mbh ≲ (2-10)x108 M☉, roughly corresponding to M_sph, *_ ≲ (0.3-1)x1011 M☉. We show that this steeper, quadratic-like Mbh-M_sph, *_relation defined by the Sérsic galaxies, i.e., galaxies without partially depleted cores, roughly tracks the apparent offset of the AGN having 105 ≲ Mbh/M☉ ≲ 0.5x108. That is, these AGNs are not randomly offset with low black hole masses, but also follow a steeper (nonlinear) relation. As noted by Busch et al., confirmation or rejection of a possible AGN offset from the steeper Mbh-M _sph, *_ relation defined by the Sérsic galaxies will benefit from improved stellar mass-to-light ratios for the spheroids hosting these AGNs. Several implications for formation theories are noted. Furthermore, reasons for possible under- and overmassive black holes, the potential existence of intermediate mass black holes (<105 M☉), and the new steep (black hole)-(nuclear star cluster) relation, Mbh ∝ Mnc2.7±0.7, are also discussed.
black hole physics - galaxies: bulges - galaxies: fundamental parameters - galaxies: nuclei
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<Available at CDS (J/ApJ/798/54): table2.dat table3.dat>
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