Astrophys. J., 799, 4 (2015/January-3)
A survey of the high order multiplicity of nearby solar-type binary stars with Robo-AO.
RIDDLE R.L., TOKOVININ A., MASON B.D., HARTKOPF W.I., ROBERTS L.C.Jr, BARANEC C., LAW N.M., BUI K., BURSE M.P., DAS H.K., DEKANY R.G., KULKARNI S., PUNNADI S., RAMAPRAKASH A.N. and TENDULKAR S.P.
Abstract (from CDS):
We conducted a survey of nearby binary systems composed of main sequence stars of spectral types F and G in order to improve our understanding of the hierarchical nature of multiple star systems. Using Robo-AO, the first robotic adaptive optics instrument, we collected high angular resolution images with deep and well-defined detection limits in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey i' band. A total of 695 components belonging to 595 systems were observed. We prioritized observations of faint secondary components with separations over 10'' to quantify the still poorly constrained frequency of their subsystems. Of the 214 secondaries observed, 39 contain such subsystems; 19 of those were discovered with Robo-AO. The selection-corrected frequency of secondary subsystems with periods from 103.5 to 105 days is 0.12±0.03, the same as the frequency of such companions to the primary. Half of the secondary pairs belong to quadruple systems where the primary is also a close pair, showing that the presence of subsystems in both components of the outer binary is correlated. The relatively large abundance of 2+2 quadruple systems is a new finding, and will require more exploration of the formation mechanism of multiple star systems. We also targeted close binaries with periods less than 100 yr, searching for their distant tertiary components, and discovered 17 certain and 2 potential new triples. In a subsample of 241 close binaries, 71 have additional outer companions. The overall frequency of tertiary components is not enhanced, compared to all (non-binary) targets, but in the range of outer periods from 106 to 107.5 days (separations on the order of 500 AU), the frequency of tertiary components is 0.16±0.03, exceeding the frequency of similar systems among all targets (0.09) by almost a factor of two. Measurements of binary stars with Robo-AO allowed us to compute first orbits for 9 pairs and to improve orbits of another 11 pairs.
binaries: close - binaries: general - instrumentation: adaptive optics - stars: formation - techniques: high angular resolution
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<Available at CDS (J/ApJ/799/4): table3.dat table4.dat table5.dat refs.dat>
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