2015MNRAS.446.2428S


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2021.05.17CEST20:34:15

2015MNRAS.446.2428S - Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 446, 2428-2443 (2015/January-3)

HST hot-Jupiter transmission spectral survey: detection of potassium in WASP-31b along with a cloud deck and Rayleigh scattering.

SING D.K., WAKEFORD H.R., SHOWMAN A.P., NIKOLOV N., FORTNEY J.J., BURROWS A.S., BALLESTER G.E., DEMING D., AIGRAIN S., DESERT J.-M., GIBSON N.P., HENRY G.W., KNUTSON H., LECAVELIER DES ETANGS A., PONT F., VIDAL-MADJAR A., WILLIAMSON M.W. and WILSON P.A.

Abstract (from CDS):

We present Hubble Space Telescope optical and near-IR transmission spectra of the transiting hot-Jupiter WASP-31b. The spectrum covers 0.3-1.7 µm at a resolution R ∼ 70, which we combine with Spitzer photometry to cover the full-optical to IR. The spectrum is dominated by a cloud deck with a flat transmission spectrum which is apparent at wavelengths > 0.52µm. The cloud deck is present at high altitudes and low pressures, as it covers the majority of the expected optical Na line and near-IR H2O features. While Na i absorption is not clearly identified, the resulting spectrum does show a very strong potassium feature detected at the 4.2σ confidence level. Broadened alkali wings are not detected, indicating pressures below ∼ 10 mbar. The lack of Na and strong K is the first indication of a sub-solar Na/K abundance ratio in a planetary atmosphere (ln[Na/K] = -3.3±2.8), which could potentially be explained by Na condensation on the planet's night side, or primordial abundance variations. A strong Rayleigh scattering signature is detected at short wavelengths, with a 4σ significant slope. Two distinct aerosol size populations can explain the spectra, with a smaller sub-micron size grain population reaching high altitudes producing a blue Rayleigh scattering signature on top of a larger, lower lying population responsible for the flat cloud deck at longer wavelengths. We estimate that the atmospheric circulation is sufficiently strong to mix micron size particles upwards to the required 1-10 mbar pressures, necessary to explain the cloud deck. These results further confirm the importance of clouds in hot Jupiters, which can potentially dominate the overall spectra and may alter the abundances of key gaseous species.

Abstract Copyright: © 2014 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society (2014)

Journal keyword(s): techniques: spectroscopic - planets and satellites: atmospheres - planets and satellites: individual: WASP-31b - stars: individual: WASP-31 - planetary systems

VizieR on-line data: <Available at CDS (J/MNRAS/446/2428): table3.dat>

Simbad objects: 10

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Number of rows : 10

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2021
#notes
1 HAT-P-32b Pl 02 04 10.2775457769 +46 41 16.210382751           ~ 96 1
2 WASP-12b Pl 06 30 32.7966788910 +29 40 20.266334158           G0 593 1
3 WASP-12 ** 06 30 32.7966788910 +29 40 20.266334158   12.14 11.57     G0V 244 2
4 WASP-19b Pl 09 53 40.0764883458 -45 39 33.055979403           ~ 283 1
5 WASP-31 * 11 17 45.3578468391 -19 03 17.216528280   12.01 11.66 11.98   F: 46 1
6 WASP-31b Pl 11 17 45.3578468391 -19 03 17.216528280           ~ 97 1
7 HD 189733b Pl 20 00 43.7130382888 +22 42 39.071811263           ~ 1168 1
8 HD 209458b Pl 22 03 10.7729598762 +18 53 03.548248479           ~ 1568 1
9 NAME BD+37 4734Bb Pl 22 57 46.8443014981 +38 40 30.355384717           ~ 209 1
10 WASP-6b Pl 23 12 37.7368657624 -22 40 26.277489164           ~ 106 1

    Equat.    Gal    SGal    Ecl

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