Astrophys. J., 831, 67-67 (2016/November-1)
The galactic census of high- and medium-mass protostars. III. 12CO maps and physical properties of dense clump envelopes and their embedding GMCs.
BARNES P.J., HERNANDEZ A.K., O'DOUGHERTY S.N., SCHAP III W.J. and MULLER E.
Abstract (from CDS):
We report the second complete molecular line data release from the Census of High- and Medium-mass Protostars (CHaMP), a large-scale, unbiased, uniform mapping survey at sub-parsec resolution, of millimeter-wave line emission from 303 massive, dense molecular clumps in the Milky Way. This release is for all 12CO J = 1 →0 emission associated with the dense gas, the first from Phase II of the survey, which includes 12CO, 13CO, and C18O. The observed clump emission traced by both 12CO and HCO+ (from Phase I) shows very similar morphology, indicating that, for dense molecular clouds and complexes of all sizes, parsec-scale clumps contain Ξ ∼ 75% of the mass, while only 25% of the mass lies in extended (>=10 pc) or "low density" components in these same areas. The mass fraction of all gas above a density of 109 m–3 is ξ9 >= 50%. This suggests that parsec-scale clumps may be the basic building blocks of the molecular interstellar medium, rather than the standard GMC concept. Using 12CO emission, we derive physical properties of these clumps in their entirety, and compare them to properties from HCO+, tracing their denser interiors. We compare the standard X-factor converting I_12CO to NH2_ with alternative conversions, and show that only the latter give whole-clump properties that are physically consistent with those of their interiors. We infer that the clump population is systematically closer to virial equilibrium than when considering only their interiors, with perhaps half being long-lived (10s of Myr), pressure-confined entities that only terminally engage in vigorous massive star formation, supporting other evidence along these lines that was previously published.
© 2016. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.
astrochemistry - ISM: molecules - radio lines: ISM - stars: formation - stars: formation
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<Available at CDS (J/ApJ/831/67): table1.dat table2.dat table3.dat>
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