2016ApJ...833..270G


Query : 2016ApJ...833..270G

2016ApJ...833..270G - Astrophys. J., 833, 270-270 (2016/December-3)

Predominantly low metallicities measured in a stratified sample of Lyman limit systems at z=3.7.

GLIDDEN A., COOPER T.J., COOKSEY K.L., SIMCOE R.A. and O'MEARA J.M.

Abstract (from CDS):

We measured metallicities for 33 z = 3.4-4.2 absorption line systems drawn from a sample of H i-selected-Lyman limit systems (LLSs) identified in Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasar spectra and stratified based on metal line features. We obtained higher-resolution spectra with the Keck Echellette Spectrograph and Imager, selecting targets according to our stratification scheme in an effort to fully sample the LLS population metallicity distribution. We established a plausible range of H i column densities and measured column densities (or limits) for ions of carbon, silicon, and aluminum, finding ionization-corrected metallicities or upper limits. Interestingly, our ionization models were better constrained with enhanced α-to-aluminum abundances, with a median abundance ratio of [α/Al] = 0.3. Measured metallicities were generally low, ranging from [M/H] = -3 to -1.68, with even lower metallicities likely for some systems with upper limits. Using survival statistics to incorporate limits, we constructed the cumulative distribution function (CDF) for LLS metallicities. Recent models of galaxy evolution propose that galaxies replenish their gas from the low-metallicity intergalactic medium (IGM) via high-density H i "flows" and eject enriched interstellar gas via outflows. Thus, there has been some expectation that LLSs at the peak of cosmic star formation (z ≃ 3) might have a bimodal metallicity distribution. We modeled our CDF as a mix of two Gaussian distributions, one reflecting the metallicity of the IGM and the other representative of the interstellar medium of star-forming galaxies. This bimodal distribution yielded a poor fit. A single Gaussian distribution better represented the sample with a low mean metallicity of [M/H] ≃ -2.5.

Abstract Copyright: © 2016. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Journal keyword(s): galaxies: evolution - galaxies: high-redshift - intergalactic medium - quasars: absorption lines - quasars: absorption lines

VizieR on-line data: <Available at CDS (J/ApJ/833/270): table1.dat table2.dat>

Simbad objects: 33

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Number of rows : 33
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2021
#notes
1 QSO J0113-0935 QSO 01 13 51.9715920864 -09 35 51.076070460   20.20 19.28     ~ 22 0
2 QSO J0344-0653 QSO 03 44 02.8519183218 -06 53 00.598207601   20.09 19.29     ~ 22 0
3 [VV2006] J075103.9+424211 QSO 07 51 03.9575704101 +42 42 11.562470886   21.17 19.97     ~ 25 0
4 [VV2006] J081039.7+345730 QSO 08 10 39.8001903801 +34 57 30.866169771   20.41 19.46     ~ 26 0
5 [VV2006] J081809.5+321913 QSO 08 18 09.5577428681 +32 19 12.800681823   20.47 19.74     ~ 22 0
6 SDSS J081855.78+095848.0 QSO 08 18 55.7830570576 +09 58 47.993991122   19.71 18.81     ~ 27 0
7 [VV2006] J082340.5+342753 QSO 08 23 40.4750903642 +34 27 52.993000468   21.17 19.97     ~ 28 0
8 [VV2006] J083941.4+031816 QSO 08 39 41.4497045576 +03 18 17.091041302   21.62 20.10     ~ 24 0
9 SDSS J100412.42+292121.5 QSO 10 04 12.4225387494 +29 21 21.520850019   20.44 19.61     ~ 18 0
10 [VV2006] J101347.3+065015 QSO 10 13 47.2972371832 +06 50 15.635850075   20.59 19.63     ~ 29 0
11 SDSS J103018.43+164633.0 QSO 10 30 18.4368466367 +16 46 33.045968422   20.46 19.40     ~ 14 0
12 [VV2006] J103048.2+391234 QSO 10 30 48.2461364782 +39 12 34.280032767   20.74 19.90     ~ 19 0
13 [VV2006] J104057.7+514505 QSO 10 40 57.6883438896 +51 45 05.814175348   20.60 19.49     ~ 22 0
14 SDSS J105830.02+333859.3 QSO 10 58 30.0283383848 +33 38 59.395414088   20.83 19.88     ~ 22 0
15 [VV2006] J110236.8+460101 QSO 11 02 36.7923049783 +46 01 01.224260233   20.75 19.82     ~ 19 0
16 SDSS J111957.09+281354.1 QSO 11 19 57.1028460450 +28 13 54.162447885   20.74 19.75     ~ 13 0
17 SDSS J113608.53+250322.0 QSO 11 36 08.5355754099 +25 03 22.045954945   20.35 19.69     ~ 12 0
18 SDSS J114713.01+362702.4 QSO 11 47 13.0240251733 +36 27 02.440115064   20.59 19.75     ~ 22 0
19 SDSS J121058.56+182119.1 QSO 12 10 58.5656591789 +18 21 19.123178832   21.08 20.05     ~ 13 0
20 2MASS J12200081+2542306 QSO 12 20 00.8313555905 +25 42 30.649051770   20.17 19.09     ~ 14 0
21 [VV2006] J122027.9+261904 QSO 12 20 27.9582510191 +26 19 03.507758503   20.12 19.16     ~ 22 0
22 SDSS J131453.02+080456.6 QSO 13 14 53.0320338100 +08 04 56.594467808   20.41 19.56     ~ 13 0
23 QSO J1402+0146 QSO 14 02 48.0776380626 +01 46 34.051455663   20.89 19.64     ~ 28 0
24 [VV2006] J141831.7+444937 QSO 14 18 31.6978839665 +44 49 37.506602460   21.46 20.11     ~ 28 0
25 SDSS J144144.76+472003.2 QSO 14 41 44.7694272151 +47 20 03.235690003   20.08 19.28     ~ 26 0
26 [VV2006] J144213.1+391856 QSO 14 42 13.0964018421 +39 18 56.045655899   19.66 18.98     ~ 22 0
27 SDSS J144335.15+334859.9 QSO 14 43 35.1604230306 +33 48 59.904514978   20.11 19.37     ~ 24 0
28 [VV2006] J144542.8+490248 QSO 14 45 42.7641331969 +49 02 48.936003818   19.41 18.31     ~ 39 0
29 QSO J1452+0154 QSO 14 52 43.6277452813 +01 54 30.769446306   21.02 19.83     ~ 26 0
30 SDSS J151352.08+204057.7 QSO 15 13 52.0891717284 +20 40 57.687515152   20.71 19.85     ~ 10 0
31 2MASS J15243606+2123092 QSO 15 24 36.0830438586 +21 23 09.151894315   19.30 18.58     ~ 18 0
32 [VV2006] J152652.7+405126 QSO 15 26 52.7608954495 +40 51 26.615286828   20.52 19.67     ~ 21 0
33 [VV2006] J163950.5+434004 QSO 16 39 50.5196153141 +43 40 03.706185352   19.59 18.67 17.8 17.4 ~ 36 0

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2021.10.27-20:44:53

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