Astrophys. J., 866, 110-110 (2018/October-3)
Multiple disk gaps and rings generated by a single super-Earth. II. Spacings, depths, and number of gaps, with application to real systems.
DONG R., LI S., CHIANG E. and LI H.
Abstract (from CDS):
The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) has found multiple dust gaps and rings in a number of protoplanetary disks in continuum emission at millimeter wavelengths. The origin of such structures is under debate. Recently, we documented how one super-Earth planet can open multiple (up to five) dust gaps in a disk with low viscosity (α <= 10–4). In this paper, we examine how the positions, depths, and total number of gaps opened by one planet depend on input parameters, and apply our results to real systems. Gap locations (equivalently, spacings) are the easiest metric to use when making comparisons between theory and observations, as positions can be robustly measured. We fit the locations of gaps empirically as functions of planet mass and disk aspect ratio. We find that the locations of the double gaps in HL Tau and TW Hya, and of all three gaps in HD 163296, are consistent with being opened by a sub-Saturn mass planet. This scenario predicts the locations of other gaps in HL Tau and TW Hya, some of which appear consistent with current observations. We also show how the Rossby wave instability may develop at the edges of several gaps and result in multiple dusty vortices, all caused by one planet. A planet as low in mass as Mars may produce multiple dust gaps in the terrestrial planet-forming region.
© 2018. The American Astronomical Society.
planet-disk interactions - planets and satellites: formation - protoplanetary disks - stars: pre-main sequence - stars: variables: T Tauri, Herbig Ae/Be
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