Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 487, 4995-5009 (2019/August-3)
A galaxy classification grid that better recognizes early-type galaxy morphology.
Abstract (from CDS):
A modified galaxy classification scheme for local galaxies is presented. It builds upon the Aitken-Jeans nebula sequence, by expanding the Jeans-Hubble tuning fork diagram, which itself contained key ingredients from Curtis and Reynolds. The two-dimensional grid of galaxy morphological types presented here, with elements from de Vaucouleurs' three-dimensional classification volume, has an increased emphasis on the often overlooked bars and continua of disc sizes in early-type galaxies - features not fully captured by past tuning forks, tridents, or combs. The grid encompasses nuclear discs in elliptical (E) galaxies, intermediate-scale discs in ellicular (ES) galaxies, and large-scale discs in lenticular (S0) galaxies, while the E4-E7 class is made redundant given that these galaxies are lenticular galaxies. Today, these structures continue to be neglected, or surprise researchers, perhaps partly due to our indoctrination to galaxy morphology through the tuning fork diagram. To better understand the current and proposed classification schemes - whose origins reside in solar/planetary formation models - a holistic overview is given. This provides due credit to some of the lesser known pioneers, presents some rationale for the grid, and reveals the incremental nature of, and some of the lesser known connections in, the field of galaxy morphology.
© 2019 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society
history and philosophy of astronomy - galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD - galaxies: general - galaxies: structure - galaxies: spiral
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