Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 488, 5114-5126 (2019/October-1)
Simulating radial velocity observations of trappist-1 with SPIRou.
KLEIN B. and DONATI J.-F.
Abstract (from CDS):
We simulate a radial velocity (RV) follow-up of the TRAPPIST-1 system, a faithful representative of M dwarfs hosting transiting Earth-sized exoplanets to be observed with SPIRou in the months to come. We generate an RV curve containing the signature of the seven transiting TRAPPIST-1 planets and a realistic stellar activity curve statistically compatible with the light curve obtained with the K2 mission. We find a ±5 m s–1 stellar activity signal comparable in amplitude with the planet signal. Using various sampling schemes and white noise levels, we create time-series from which we estimate the masses of the seven planets. We find that the precision on the mass estimates is dominated by (i) the white noise level for planets c, f, and e and (ii) the stellar activity signal for planets b, d, and h. In particular, the activity signal completely outshines the RV signatures of planets d and h that remain undetected regardless of the RV curve sampling and level of white noise in the data set. We find that an RV follow-up of TRAPPIST-1 using SPIRou alone would likely result in an insufficient coverage of the rapidly evolving activity signal of the star, especially with bright-time observations only, making statistical methods such as Gaussian Process Regression hardly capable of firmly detecting planet f and accurately recovering the mass of planet g. In contrast, we show that using bi-site observations with good longitudinal complementary would allow for a more accurate filtering of the stellar activity RV signal.