Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 649A, 96-96 (2021/5-1)
The active lives of stars: A complete description of the rotation and XUV evolution of F, G, K, and M dwarfs.
JOHNSTONE C.P., BARTEL M. and GUDEL M.
Abstract (from CDS):
Aims. We study the evolution of the rotation and the high energy X-ray, extreme ultraviolet (EUV), and Ly-α emission for F, G, K, and M dwarfs, with masses between 0.1 and 1.2M☉, and provide a freely available set of evolutionary tracks for use in planetary atmosphere studies.
Methods. We develop a physical rotational evolution model constrained by observed rotation distributions in young stellar clusters. Using rotation, X-ray, EUV, and Ly-α measurements, we derive empirical relations for the dependences of high energy emission on stellar parameters. Our description of X-ray evolution is validated using measurements of X-ray distributions in young clusters.
Results. A star's X-ray, EUV, and Ly-α evolution is determined by its mass and initial rotation rate, with initial rotation being less important for lower mass stars. At all ages, solar mass stars are significantly more X-ray luminous than lower mass stars and stars that are born as rapid rotators remain highly active longer than those born as slow rotators. At all evolutionary stages, habitable zone planets receive higher X-ray and EUV fluxes when orbiting lower mass stars due to their longer evolutionary timescales. The rates of flares follow similar evolutionary trends with higher mass stars flaring more often than lower mass stars at all ages, though habitable zone planets are likely influenced by flares more when orbiting lower mass stars.
Conclusions. Our results show that single decay laws are insufficient to describe stellar activity evolution and highlight the need for a more comprehensive description based on the evolution of rotation that also includes the effects of short-term variability. Planets at similar orbital distances from their host stars receive significantly more X-ray and EUV energy over their lifetimes when orbiting higher mass stars. The common belief that M dwarfs are more X-ray and EUV active than G dwarfs is justified only when considering the fluxes received by planets with similar effective temperatures, such as those in the habitable zone.
© ESO 2021
stars: activity - stars: chromospheres - stars: coronae - stars: late-type - stars: magnetic field - stars: rotation
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