Formation of multiple-planet systems in resonant chains around M dwarfs.
LIN Y.-C., MATSUMOTO Y. and GU P.-G.
Abstract (from CDS):
Recent observations have revealed the existence of multiple-planet systems composed of Earth-mass planets around late M dwarfs. Most of their orbits are close to commensurabilities, which suggests that planets were commonly trapped in resonant chains in their formation around low-mass stars. We investigate the formation of multiple-planet systems in resonant chains around low-mass stars. A time-evolution model of the multiple-planet formation via pebble accretion in the early phase of the disk evolution is constructed based on the formation model for the TRAPPIST-1 system by Ormel et al. Our simulations show that knowing the protoplanet appearance timescale is important for determining the number of planets and their trapped resonances: as the protoplanet appearance timescale increases, fewer planets are formed, which are trapped in more widely separated resonances. We find that there is a range of the protoplanet appearance timescale for forming stable multiple-planet systems in resonant chains. This range depends on the stellar mass and disk size. We suggest that the protoplanet appearance timescale is a key parameter for studying the formation of multiple-planet systems with planets in resonant chains around low-mass stars. The composition of the planets in our model is also discussed.