Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 500, 4878-4900 (2021/February-1)
ALMA survey of Lupus class III stars: Early planetesimal belt formation and rapid disc dispersal.
LOVELL J.B., WYATT M.C., ANSDELL M., KAMA M., KENNEDY G.M., MANARA C.F., MARINO S., MATRA L., ROSOTTI G., TAZZARI M., TESTI L. and WILLIAMS J.P.
Abstract (from CDS):
Class III stars are those in star forming regions without large non-photospheric infrared emission, suggesting recent dispersal of their protoplanetary discs. We observed 30 class III stars in the 1-3 Myr Lupus region with ALMA at ∼856µm, resulting in four detections that we attribute to circumstellar dust. Inferred dust masses are 0.036-0.093M⊕, ∼1 order of magnitude lower than any previous measurements; one disc is resolved with radius ∼80 au. Two class II sources in the field of view were also detected, and 11 other sources, consistent with sub-mm galaxy number counts. Stacking non-detections yields a marginal detection with mean dust mass ∼0.0048M⊕. We searched for gas emission from the CO J = 3-2 line, and present its detection to NO Lup inferring a gas mass (4.9 ± 1.1) x 10–5 M⊕ and gas-to-dust ratio 1.0 ± 0.4. Combining our survey with class II sources shows a gap in the disc mass distribution from 0.09-2M⊕ for >0.7 M☉ Lupus stars, evidence of rapid dispersal of mm-sized dust from protoplanetary discs. The class III disc mass distribution is consistent with a population model of planetesimal belts that go on to replenish the debris discs seen around main sequence stars. This suggests that planetesimal belt formation does not require long-lived protoplanetary discs, i.e. planetesimals form within ∼2 Myr. While all four class III discs are consistent with collisional replenishment, for two the gas and/or mid-IR emission could indicate primordial circumstellar material in the final stages of protoplanetary disc dispersal. Two class III stars without sub-mm detections exhibit hot emission that could arise from ongoing planet formation processes inside ∼1 au.
© 2020 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Astronomical Society
techniques: interferometric - planets and satellites: dynamical evolution and stability - (stars:) circumstellar matter - (stars:) planetary systems - submillimetre: planetary systems
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