Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 501, 4974-4997 (2021/March-2)
A comprehensive view of blackbody components in the X-ray spectra of GRBs.
VALAN V. and LARSSON J.
Abstract (from CDS):
A small fraction of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) exhibit blackbody emission in the X-ray spectra, the origin of which is debated. In order to gain a more complete understanding of this phenomenon, we present a search for blackbody components in 116 GRBs with known redshifts observed by Swift X-ray telescope (XRT). A time-resolved spectral analysis is carried out and the significance of the blackbody is assessed with respect to an absorbed power-law model. We report nine new detections and confirm the previously reported blackbody in GRB 171205A. Together with our previous results, there are a total of 19 GRBs with significant blackbody emission in a sample of 199 GRBs observed by Swift over 13 yr. The detections include one short GRB and two low-luminosity GRBs. We estimate fireball parameters from the blackbody components and note that the blackbody luminosity is correlated with the temperature and inferred Lorentz factor. There is a large spread in the properties of the blackbody components and the light curves, which points to different origins for the emission. In about a third of the GRBs, the blackbody is clearly associated with late prompt emission from the jet. The rest of the sample includes cases that are fully consistent with the expectations from a cocoon, as well cases that may be explained by high-latitude emission or more energetic cocoons. These results indicate that thermal emission is associated with all parts of the jet.