2009A&A...498..127V


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2021.06.20CEST08:19:38

2009A&A...498..127V - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 498, 127-138 (2009/4-4)

The dust condensation sequence in red supergiant stars.

VERHOELST T., VAN DER ZYPEN N., HONY S., DECIN L., CAMI J. and ERIKSSON K.

Abstract (from CDS):

Red supergiant (RSG) stars exhibit significant mass loss by means of a slow, dense wind. They are often considered to be the more massive counterparts of Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars. While AGB mass loss is related to their strong pulsations, the RSG are often only weakly variable. This raises the question of whether their wind-driving mechanism and the dust composition of the wind are the same. We study the conditions at the base of the wind by determining the dust composition of a sample of RSG. The dust composition is assumed to be sensitive to the density, temperature, and acceleration at the base of the wind. We compare the derived dust composition with the composition measured in AGB star winds. We compile a sample of 27 RSG infrared spectra (ISO-SWS) and supplement these with photometric measurements to derive the full spectral energy distribution (SED). These data are modelled using a dust radiative-transfer code, taking into account the optical properties of the relevant candidate materials to search for correlations between mass-loss rate, density at the inner edge of the dust shell, and stellar parameters. We find strong correlations between the dust composition, mass-loss rate, and the stellar luminosity, roughly in agreement with the theoretical dust condensation sequence. We identify the need for a continuous (near-)IR dust opacity and tentatively propose amorphous carbon, and we note significant differences with AGB star winds in terms of the presence of PAHs, absence of ``the'' 13µm band, and a lack of strong water bands. Dust condensation in RSG is found to experience a freeze-out process that is similar to that in AGB stars. Together with the positive effect of the stellar luminosity on the mass-loss rate, this suggests that radiation pressure on dust grains is an important ingredient in the driving mechanism. Still, differences with AGB stars are manifold and thus the winds of RSG should be studied individually in further detail.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): techniques: spectroscopic - stars: atmospheres - circumstellar matter - supergiants - stars: mass-loss - dust, extinction

Simbad objects: 42

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Number of rows : 42

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2021
#notes
1 V* T Cet S* 00 21 46.2731778 -20 03 28.884826   7.32 5.74     M5-6Se 141 0
2 V* WX Cas s*r 01 54 03.7384457029 +61 06 32.964198907   12.43 9.90     M2Iab-Ib 19 0
3 V* XX Per LP* 02 03 09.3584858564 +55 13 56.623349355 11.66 10.34 8.20 6.02 4.19 M4Ib+ 83 0
4 V* V605 Cas s*r 02 20 22.4633097592 +59 40 16.911006172 13.41 10.80 8.36 6.42 4.85 M2Iab 63 0
5 V* AD Per s*r 02 20 29.0027235674 +56 59 35.243403712 12.70 10.16 7.8490   7.1111 M3Iab 122 1
6 V* PR Per s*r 02 21 42.4096612239 +57 51 46.148946906 12.84 10.31 8.00 6.13 4.60 M1-Iab-Ib 106 0
7 V* SU Per s*r 02 22 06.8945607706 +56 36 14.896842798 13.86 11.57 9.40     M3-M4Iab 135 0
8 V* RS Per s*r 02 22 24.2951350259 +57 06 34.100118658 12.37 10.09 8.7680     M3.5IabFe-1 133 0
9 V* S Per s*r 02 22 51.7103845023 +58 35 11.454759954 13.22 10.55 7.90     M4.5-7Iae 364 0
10 V* V403 Per s*r 02 23 24.1095004917 +57 12 43.040134182 13.32 10.81 8.4020 6.67 5.21 M0Iab 65 0
11 V* V441 Per s*r 02 25 21.8599381234 +57 26 14.137762984 13.07 10.61 8.22 6.09 4.29 M3Iab 75 0
12 V* YZ Per s*r 02 38 25.4198565398 +57 02 46.198062168 14.96 12.37 10.01     M1Iab 91 0
13 V* W Per s*r 02 50 37.8926244676 +56 59 00.297385667 14.80 12.24 9.62 6.99 4.75 M3Iab-M5I 107 0
14 * rho Per LP* 03 05 10.59385 +38 50 24.9943 6.83 5.04 3.39 1.59 -0.03 M4+IIIa 308 0
15 V* V704 Cas LP* 03 07 40.5103237491 +60 29 22.128241046 14.30 11.68 8.90 6.54 4.73 M1Iab 42 0
16 * iot Aur V* 04 56 59.6210887 +33 09 57.958479 6.00 4.22 2.69 1.63 0.81 K3II-III 266 0
17 V* NO Aur s*r 05 40 42.0501780592 +31 55 14.202295199 10.52 8.30 6.21 4.43 3.02 M2Iab 139 1
18 * alf Ori s*r 05 55 10.30536 +07 24 25.4304 4.38 2.27 0.42 -1.17 -2.45 M1-M2Ia-Iab 1524 0
19 V* VY CMa s*r 07 22 58.32877 -25 46 03.2355 12.01 10.19 7.95     M5Iae 1031 0
20 V* V348 Vel s*r 10 26 15.6392685273 -53 53 29.268491516   8.98 6.93     M3-Iab 41 0
21 V* RT Car s*r 10 44 47.1477509492 -59 24 48.123186340   10.62 8.551     M2+Iab 72 0
22 * alf UMa SB* 11 03 43.67152 +61 45 03.7249 3.78 2.86 1.79 0.98 0.40 G9III+A7.5 426 0
23 V* R Cen Mi* 14 16 34.3280480938 -59 54 49.272199869   9.65 7.55 4.45 1.37 M4-6e 131 0
24 * alf Sco ** 16 29 24.45970 -26 25 55.2094 4.08 2.75 0.91 -0.64 -1.87 M0.5Iab+B3V: 714 0
25 * alf Her ** 17 14 38.85818 +14 23 25.2262   4.51 3.06     M5Ib-II+G5III+F2V: 191 0
26 * sig Oph V* 17 26 30.8805999537 +04 08 25.287576783 7.39 5.82 4.31 3.22 2.46 K2II 168 0
27 V* R Sct RV* 18 47 28.9509385830 -05 42 18.537825839 8.30 6.67 5.20 4.14 3.37 K4/5pec 299 0
28 V* V340 Sge LP? 19 39 25.3354745662 +16 34 16.036192017   8.330 6.344     K4Ib 80 0
29 V* NR Vul s*r 19 50 11.9279772343 +24 55 24.177460007   12.41 9.36 6.60 4.49 M1Ia: 76 0
30 V* S Pav Mi* 19 55 13.9622335061 -59 11 44.310533941   9.25 8.21     M8III 82 0
31 * bet01 Cap SB* 20 21 00.6482842761 -14 46 53.378600257 4.14 3.87 3.08 2.53 2.03 G9II:+B8p:Si: 170 0
32 * bet Cap ** 20 21 00.67 -14 46 53.0           ~ 163 0
33 BD+35 4077 s?r 20 21 14.0688820060 +35 37 16.557335640 14.72 12.65 9.72 6.83 4.65 M3Iab: 47 0
34 V* BC Cyg s*r 20 21 38.5480930133 +37 31 58.917783927   14.61 11.30     M3.5Ia 160 0
35 V* RW Cyg s*r 20 28 50.5902663365 +39 58 54.418023246 13.00 10.60 8.00 5.32 3.25 M3-M4Ia-Iab 118 0
36 IRC +40427 s*r 20 31 28.6960079604 +40 38 43.413799407     11.4     M0/2I 26 0
37 CIT 11 s*r 20 39 36.5221596472 +39 12 09.690847977     13.8 13.24   M2/4I 34 1
38 * mu. Cep s*r 21 43 30.4610574 +58 46 48.160181 8.85 6.43 4.08 1.98 0.22 M2-Ia 635 1
39 V* V354 Cep LP* 22 33 34.6349729395 +58 53 47.125979396   13.71 10.90     M3.5Ib 26 1
40 V* U Lac s*r 22 47 43.4264404880 +55 09 30.316069125 13.20 11.74 9.40     M3Ia 74 0
41 IRC +60370 s*r 22 49 58.9657403016 +60 17 56.657408268       9.06   K2Ia 42 0
42 V* PZ Cas s*r 23 44 03.2794635453 +61 47 22.187155352 12.80 11.48 8.90 6.08 3.90 M3Ia 193 0

    Equat.    Gal    SGal    Ecl

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2021.06.20-08:19:38

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