2009A&A...507..301D


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2021.06.16CEST01:16:27

2009A&A...507..301D - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 507, 301-316 (2009/11-3)

Resolving the asymmetric inner wind region of the yellow hypergiant IRC+10420 with VLTI/AMBER in low and high spectral resolution mode.

DRIEBE T., GROH J.H., HOFMANN K.-H., OHNAKA K., KRAUS S., MILLOUR F., MURAKAWA K., SCHERTL D., WEIGELT G., PETROV R., WITTKOWSKI M., HUMMEL C.A., LE BOUQUIN J.B., MERAND A., SCHOELLER M., MASSI F., STEE P. and TATULLI E.

Abstract (from CDS):

object{IRC+10420} is a massive evolved star belonging to the group of yellow hypergiants. Currently, this star is rapidly evolving through the Hertzprung-Russell diagram, crossing the so-called yellow void. IRC+10420 is suffering from intensive mass loss which led to the formation of an extended dust shell. Moreover, the dense stellar wind of IRC+10420 is subject to strong line emission. Our goal was to probe the photosphere and the innermost circumstellar environment of IRC+10420, to measure the size of its continuum- as well as the Brγline-emitting region on milliarcsecond scales, and to search for evidence of an asymmetric distribution of IRC+10420's dense, circumstellar gas. We obtained near-infrared long-baseline interferometry of IRC+10420 with the AMBER instrument of ESO's Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). The measurements were carried out in May/June 2007 and May 2008 in low-spectral resolution mode in the JHK bands using three auxillary telescopes (ATs) at projected baselines ranging from 30 to 96m, and in October 2008 in high-spectral resolution mode in the K band around the Brγemission line using three unit telescopes (UTs) with projected baselines between 54 and 129m. The high-spectral resolution mode observations were analyzed by means of radiative transfer modeling using CMFGEN and the 2D Busche & Hillier codes. For the first time, we have been able to absolutely calibrate the H- and K-band data and, thus, to determine the angular size of IRC+10420's continuum- and Brγ line-emitting regions. We found that both the low resolution differential and closure phases are zero within the uncertainty limits across all three bands. In the high-spectral resolution observations, the visibilities show a noticeable drop across the Brγ line on all three baselines. We found differential phases up to -25° in the redshifted part of the Brγ line and a non-zero closure phase close to the line center. The calibrated visibilities were corrected for AMBER's limited field-of-view to appropriately account for the flux contribution of IRC+10420's extended dust shell. From our low-spectral resolution AMBER data we derived FWHM Gaussian sizes of 1.05±0.07 and 0.98±0.10mas for IRC+10420's continuum-emitting region in the H and K bands, respectively. From the high-spectral resolution data, we obtained a FWHM Gaussian size of 1.014±0.010mas in the K-band continuum. The Brγ-emitting region can be fitted with a geometric ring model with a diameter of 4.18+0.19–0.09mas, which is approximately 4 times the stellar size. The geometric model also provides some evidence that the Brγline-emitting region is elongated towards a position angle of 36°, well aligned with the symmetry axis of the outer reflection nebula. Assuming an unclumped wind and a luminosity of 6x105L, the spherical radiative transfer modeling with CMGFEN yields a current mass-loss rate of 1.5-2.0x10–5M/yr based on the Brγequivalent width. However, the spherical CMFGEN model poorly reproduces the observed line shape, blueshift, and extension, definitively showing that the IRC+10420 outflow is asymmetric. Our 2D radiative transfer modeling shows that the blueshifted Brγemission and the shape of the visibility across the emission line can be explained with an asymmetric bipolar outflow with a high density contrast from pole to equator (8-16), where the redshifted light is substantially diminished.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): instrumentation: high angular resolution - instrumentation: interferometers - stars: circumstellar matter - stars: individual: IRC+10420 - stars: mass-loss - stars: supergiants

Simbad objects: 9

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Number of rows : 9

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2021
#notes
1 HD 902 * 00 13 13.8073079823 -37 49 22.343927399   8.740 7.192     K3/4III 15 0
2 HD 13692 HB* 02 13 00.9875894233 -21 00 00.480338142   6.878 5.867     K0III 37 0
3 HD 23078 * 03 39 54.7924130629 -51 41 13.036995898   8.95 8.49     F5V 21 0
4 * 39 Tau ** 04 05 20.2584363613 +22 00 32.055953585   6.52   5.5   G5V 204 0
5 HD 33833 * 05 12 48.1286065321 -06 03 25.875160860   6.867 5.892     G7III 42 0
6 * eta Car Em* 10 45 03.545808 -59 41 03.95124 6.37 7.03 6.48 4.90 4.41 OBepec 2274 0
7 IRC +10420 pA* 19 26 48.0981288433 +11 21 16.756524951   13.98 11.66     F8Ia+e 458 0
8 V* V339 Sge LP* 19 38 12.0695858688 +16 48 25.633232554 12.88 10.73 8.70     K3II(e)p 133 0
9 * tau Aql * 20 04 08.3150583434 +07 16 40.670512848   6.564 5.508     K0III 55 0

    Equat.    Gal    SGal    Ecl

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2021.06.16-01:16:27

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