2010A&A...517A..66L


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2021.06.17CEST08:47:54

2010A&A...517A..66L - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 517, A66-66 (2010/7-1)

A comparative study of high-mass cluster forming clumps.

LOPEZ-SEPULCRE A., CESARONI R. and WALMSLEY C.M.

Abstract (from CDS):

We have searched for star formation activity (mainly infall and outflow signatures) in a sample of high-mass molecular clumps (M>100M) in different evolutionary stages and with a wide range of surface densities, with the aim of looking for evolutionary trends and testing observationally recent theoretical models which predict the need for a minimum surface density to form high-mass stars. Our sample has been selected from single-dish 1.2mm continuum surveys and is composed of 48 massive molecular clumps, of which 29 are IR-loud and 19 are IR-dark. Each of these has been mapped in the HCO+(1-0), HCN(1-0) and C18O(2-1) transitions with the IRAM-30m telescope on Pico Veleta (Spain). We derive basic parameters (mass, momentum, kinetic energy) for the clumps and their associated outflows and examine the HCO+(1-0) line profiles for evidence of infall or expansion. Molecular outflows have been detected in 75% of our targets from the presence of high-velocity wings in the HCO+(1-0) spectra. These are equally frequent and massive (between ∼1 and ∼100M) in IR-dark and IR-loud clumps, implying similar levels of star formation activity in both kinds of objects. A surface density threshold at Σ=0.3g/cm2 has been found above which the outflow detection rate increases significantly and the outflows are on average more massive. The infall detection rate in our sample is low, but significantly higher in the IR-dark sub-sample. Our clump mass estimates using the mm dust emission and C18O(2-1) are sensitive to the temperature, but assuming a value of 15 K for the IR-dark sub-sample, we find evidence that C18O is depleted by a factor ∼4.5. The HCO+(1-0) to HCN(1-0) integrated intensity ratios measured reveal a greater dispersion about the mean value in the IR-dark sub-sample than in the IR-loud by a factor of about 5. We find that a considerable number of IR-dark sources are self-absorbed in HCN(1-0) suggesting that radiative transport effects in the ground state transitions have an important influence on the integrated intensity ratio. Our results indicate that, in terms of outflow frequency and energetics, both IR-dark and IR-loud molecular clumps present equivalent signatures of star formation activity, and that the formation of high-mass stars requires sufficiently high clump surface densities. The higher infall detection rate measured for the IR-dark subsample suggests that these objects could be associated with the onset of star formation.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): stars: formation - ISM: clouds - ISM: jets and outflows - ISM: molecules

Simbad objects: 52

goto Full paper

goto View the reference in ADS

Number of rows : 52

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2021
#notes
1 NAME SH 2-233 IR Cl* 05 39 10.4 +35 45 19           ~ 93 0
2 IRAS 05358+3543 mul 05 39 10.4 +35 45 19           ~ 139 1
3 [HBM2005] G213.61-12.6 mm 06 07 47.9 -06 22 57           ~ 5 0
4 [HBM2005] G189.78+0.34 mm 06 08 34.5 +20 38 51           ~ 3 0
5 [HBM2005] G192.581-0.042 mm 06 12 52.9 +18 00 35           ~ 3 0
6 [HBM2005] G192.60-0.05 mm 06 12 54.0 +17 59 23           ~ 4 0
7 [HBM2005] G192.594-0.045 mm 06 12 54.0 +17 59 47           ~ 2 0
8 W 31c HII 18 10 29.1 -19 56 05           ~ 310 0
9 [BSM2002] 18151-1208 2 cor 18 17 50.36 -12 07 54.8           ~ 17 0
10 [BSM2002] 18151-1208 3 cor 18 17 52.17 -12 06 55.5           ~ 9 0
11 IRAS 18151-1208 Y*O 18 17 58.114 -12 07 24.84           ~ 102 0
12 [HBM2005] G18.15-0.28 mm 18 25 01.3 -13 15 35           ~ 4 0
13 [WWS2012] G018.17-00.30 cor 18 25 07.2882 -13 14 33.495           ~ 15 0
14 IRAS 18223-1243 Y*O 18 25 10.92912 -12 42 15.5196           ~ 58 1
15 IRAS 18228-1312 Y*O 18 25 42.297 -13 10 19.19           ~ 28 3
16 AGAL G019.286+00.082 Y*O 18 25 52.11528 -12 04 49.8900           ~ 25 0
17 [RJS2006] MSXDC G019.27+00.07 MM1 MoC 18 25 58.29 -12 04 13.5           ~ 16 0
18 GAL 019.36-00.02 HII 18 26 24.3 -12 03 47           ~ 30 0
19 IRAS 18264-1152 cor 18 29 14.6846 -11 50 23.966           ~ 74 1
20 [RJS2006] MSXDC G023.60+00.00 MM1 mm 18 34 11.6 -08 19 06           ~ 14 0
21 RAFGL 7009S HII 18 34 20.911 -05 59 42.23           ~ 198 0
22 [RJS2006] MSXDC G023.60+00.00 MM2 mm 18 34 21.1 -08 18 07           ~ 13 0
23 IRAS 18317-0513 HII 18 34 25.620 -05 10 50.34           ~ 26 0
24 [RJS2006] MSXDC G024.08+00.04 MM2 mm 18 34 51.1 -07 45 32           ~ 8 0
25 IRAS 18324-0737 mm 18 35 08.1 -07 35 04           ~ 17 0
26 [RJS2006] MSXDC G024.33+00.11 MM4 mm 18 35 19.4 -07 37 17           ~ 10 0
27 [RJS2006] MSXDC G024.33+00.11 MM2 mm 18 35 34.5 -07 37 28           ~ 8 0
28 AGAL G024.629+00.172 Y*O 18 35 35.9973 -07 18 02.858           ~ 29 0
29 [RJS2006] MSXDC G024.60+00.08 MM1 mm 18 35 40.2 -07 18 37           ~ 13 0
30 [RJS2006] MSXDC G025.04-00.20 MM1 mm 18 38 10.2 -07 02 34           ~ 10 0
31 [RJS2006] MSXDC G025.04-00.20 MM4 mm 18 38 13.7 -07 03 12           ~ 7 0
32 [RJS2006] MSXDC G025.04-00.20 MM2 mm 18 38 17.7 -07 02 51           ~ 7 0
33 [HBM2005] G28.28-0.35 mm 18 44 14.2 -04 17 59           ~ 7 0
34 GAL 034.4+00.23 HII 18 53 17.4 +01 24 55           ~ 76 1
35 AGAL G034.411+00.234 Y*O 18 53 18.0 +01 25 24           ~ 52 0
36 NAME G34.4MM Y*O 18 53 18.01 +01 25 25.6           ~ 26 2
37 [RJS2006] MSXDC G034.43+00.24 MM3 mm 18 53 20.4 +01 28 23           ~ 36 0
38 [HBM2005] G34.24+0.13 cor 18 53 21.7 +01 13 37           ~ 4 0
39 IRAS 18517+0437 SFR 18 54 13.8 +04 41 32           ~ 61 0
40 [BT2009] G2 mm 18 56 50.3 +01 23 16           ~ 25 0
41 [ZYL2017] G35-4 MoC 18 57 06.92 +02 08 20.9           ~ 14 0
42 AGAL G038.957-00.466 Y*O 19 04 07.4 +05 08 48           ~ 18 0
43 IRAS 19035+0641 Y*O 19 06 01.63416 +06 46 36.6168           ~ 56 0
44 [BNM96] 043.793-0.125 Y*O 19 11 54.016 +09 35 49.46           ~ 64 2
45 IRAS 20216+4107 cor 20 23 23.855 +41 17 40.49           ~ 53 0
46 IRAS 20332+4124 HII 20 35 00.5 +41 34 48           ~ 35 0
47 IRAS 22134+5834 Y*O 22 15 09.02616 +58 49 08.8608           ~ 68 0
48 [BSM2002] 22570+5912 2 cor 22 59 02.80 +59 27 36.0           ~ 4 0
49 [BSM2002] 22570+5912 1 cor 22 59 05.90 +59 28 19.0           ~ 4 0
50 IRAS 23033+5951 Y*O 23 05 25.16112 +60 08 15.4428           ~ 82 0
51 IRAS 23139+5939 Y*O 23 16 10.39680 +59 55 28.2396           ~ 77 0
52 IRAS 23151+5912 HII 23 17 21.0 +59 28 49           ~ 95 0

    Equat.    Gal    SGal    Ecl

To bookmark this query, right click on this link: simbad:objects in 2010A&A...517A..66L and select 'bookmark this link' or equivalent in the popup menu


2021.06.17-08:47:54

© Université de Strasbourg/CNRS

    • Contact