2012A&A...547A..49R


Query : 2012A&A...547A..49R

2012A&A...547A..49R - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 547A, 49-49 (2012/11-1)

The Earliest Phases of Star formation (EPoS): a Herschel key program. The precursors to high-mass stars and clusters.

RAGAN S., HENNING T., KRAUSE O., PITANN J., BEUTHER H., LINZ H., TACKENBERG J., BALOG Z., HENNEMANN M., LAUNHARDT R., LIPPOK N., NIELBOCK M., SCHMIEDEKE A., SCHULLER F., STEINACKER J., STUTZ A. and VASYUNINA T.

Abstract (from CDS):

Stars are born deeply embedded in molecular clouds. In the earliest embedded phases, protostars emit the bulk of their radiation in the far-infrared wavelength range, where Herschel is perfectly suited to probe at high angular resolution and dynamic range. In the high-mass regime, the birthplaces of protostars are thought to be in the high-density structures known as infrared-dark clouds (IRDCs). While massive IRDCs are believed to have the right conditions to give rise to massive stars and clusters, the evolutionary sequence of this process is not well-characterized. As part of the Earliest Phases of Star formation (EPoS) Herschel guaranteed time key program, we isolate the embedded structures within IRDCs and other cold, massive molecular clouds. We present the full sample of 45 high-mass regions which were mapped at PACS 70, 100, and 160µm and SPIRE 250, 350, and 500µm. In the present paper, we characterize a population of cores which appear in the PACS bands and place them into context with their host molecular cloud and investigate their evolutionary stage. We construct spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 496 cores which appear in all PACS bands, 34% of which lack counterparts at 24µm. From single-temperature modified blackbody fits of the SEDs, we derive the temperature, luminosity, and mass of each core. These properties predominantly reflect the conditions in the cold, outer regions. Taking into account optical depth effects and performing simple radiative transfer models, we explore the origin of emission at PACS wavelengths. The core population has a median temperature of 20K and has masses and luminosities that span four to five orders of magnitude. Cores with a counterpart at 24µm are warmer and bluer on average than cores without a 24µm counterpart. We conclude that cores bright at 24µm are on average more advanced in their evolution, where a central protostar(s) have heated the outer bulk of the core, than 24µm-dark cores. The 24µm emission itself can arise in instances where our line of sight aligns with an exposed part of the warm inner core. About 10% of the total cloud mass is found in a given cloud's core population. We uncover over 300 further candidate cores which are dark until 100µm. These are possibly starless objects, and further observations will help us determine the nature of these very cold cores.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): stars: formation - stars: protostars - stars: massive - techniques: photometric

VizieR on-line data: <Available at CDS (J/A+A/547/A49): table3.dat tablec.dat>

Nomenclature: Table C1: [RHK2012] HMSC07029-1215 NN, [RHK2012] IRDCLLL.ll+B.bb NN, [RHK2012] IRDCHHMMm NN, [RHK2012] ISOSS JHHMMm+DDMM N, N=496.

Status at CDS : All or part of tables of objects could be ingested in SIMBAD; there are some issues with cross-identifications or classifications.

Simbad objects: 78

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Number of rows : 78
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2021
#notes
1 NAME Per Arm PoG 03 30 +45.0           ~ 1317 0
2 ISOSS J04225+5150 IR 04 22.5 +51 50           ~ 3 0
3 IRAS 04186+5143 Y*O 04 22 32.19 +51 50 29.9           ~ 10 2
4 IRAS 06084+1727 HII 06 11 24.5 +17 26 26           ~ 15 0
5 IRAS 06501+0143 HII 06 52 46.18 +01 40 19.0           ~ 18 0
6 NAME UYSO 1 Y*O 07 05 11 -12 19.0           ~ 10 0
7 MSX6C G225.4833-02.5697 MIR 07 05 18.5 -12 20 12           ~ 1 0
8 MSX6C G225.4899-02.5557 MIR 07 05 22.3 -12 20 11           ~ 1 0
9 IRAS 13524-6159 cor 13 56 00.68544 -62 13 58.6416           ~ 4 0
10 MSX6C G316.7071-00.0049 MIR 14 44 30.9 -59 49 03           ~ 1 0
11 MSX6C G321.6504-00.0229 MIR 15 17 59.6 -57 28 07           ~ 1 0
12 IRAS 15144-5709 * 15 18 20.51592 -57 20 40.5888           ~ 1 0
13 NAME Galactic Center gam 17 45 39.60213 -29 00 22.0000           ~ 12299 0
14 MSX6C G010.6713-00.2110 MIR 18 09 56.03832 -19 48 13.3668           ~ 1 0
15 [CCE98b] 011.11-0.12 Cld 18 10.5 -19 23           ~ 89 1
16 MSX6C G011.0998-00.1722 MIR 18 10 40.1 -19 24 40           ~ 1 0
17 IRAS 18102-1800 HII 18 13 12.2 -17 59 35           ~ 23 0
18 MSX6C G012.6333-00.0176 MIR 18 13 12.6 -17 59 32           ~ 1 0
19 IRAS 18102-1757 IR 18 13 13.3 -17 56 13           ~ 6 0
20 [TBH2012] 574 cor 18 17 50.0242 -15 53 41.725           ~ 19 0
21 IRAS 18151-1208 Y*O 18 17 58.114 -12 07 24.84           ~ 102 0
22 NGC 6618 OpC 18 20 47 -16 10.3           ~ 1519 0
23 IRAS 18182-1433 mul 18 21 07.9 -14 31 53           ~ 98 0
24 MSX5C G016.5824-00.0519 mul 18 21 09.1 -14 31 57           ~ 2 0
25 OH 16.59 -0.05 cor 18 21 09.2137 -14 31 45.484           ~ 118 0
26 NAME IRDC 18223-3 Y*O 18 25 08.4002 -12 45 15.466           ~ 63 0
27 IRAS 18223-1243 Y*O 18 25 10.92912 -12 42 15.5196           ~ 58 1
28 [CCE98b] 019.30+0.07 Cld 18 25 56.78 -12 04 25.0           ~ 13 0
29 IRAS 18306-0835 cor 18 33 23.8651 -08 33 24.197           ~ 39 0
30 IRAS 18308-0841 HII 18 33 32.89 -08 39 18.5           ~ 31 0
31 IRAS 18310-0825 HII 18 33 47.9 -08 23 52           ~ 30 0
32 MSX6C G024.2938-00.1517 MIR 18 36 07.9 -07 45 05           ~ 1 0
33 ISOSS J18364-0221 IR 18 36.4 -02 21           ~ 8 0
34 MSX6C G024.3977-00.1889 MIR 18 36 27.5 -07 40 35           ~ 1 0
35 RAFGL 5515 HII 18 36 29.0 -07 40 33           ~ 29 0
36 [BKL2006] ISOSS J18364-0221 SMM 2 Y*O 18 36 29.65 -02 21 59.6           ~ 6 0
37 JCMTSE J183635.9-022144 Y*O 18 36 36.13 -02 21 44.7           ~ 7 0
38 MSX6C G027.1852-00.0812 Y*O 18 41 13.2 -05 09 00           ~ 5 2
39 IRAS 18385-0512 cor 18 41 13.7583 -05 08 55.892           ~ 49 1
40 AGAL G028.324+00.067 Y*O 18 42 46.7 -04 04 08           ~ 44 0
41 AGAL G028.354+00.072 MoC 18 42 49.34 -04 02 27.3           ~ 28 0
42 AGAL G028.344+00.061 cor 18 42 50.45 -04 03 17.7           ~ 71 0
43 NAME Dragon Nebula DNe 18 42 50.6 -04 03 30           ~ 124 0
44 IRAS 18437-0216 HII 18 46 22.7 -02 13 24           ~ 19 0
45 IRAS 18438-0222 Y*O 18 46 26.05 -02 19 10.4           ~ 9 0
46 SNR G030.8-00.0 SNR 18 47 32 -01 56.5           ~ 469 0
47 GAL 030.76-00.05 HII 18 47 38.9 -01 57 25           ~ 22 0
48 MSX6C G030.8295-00.1008 MIR 18 47 57.7 -01 55 01           ~ 1 0
49 IRC +00379 OH* 18 48 08.8209271065 -01 56 54.075461459           M6III 13 0
50 MSX6C G030.8561-00.2008 MIR 18 48 22.0 -01 56 20           ~ 1 0
51 IRAS 18530+0215 cor 18 55 33.7 +02 19 09           ~ 37 0
52 NAME Sgr Arm PoG 19 00 -30.0           ~ 548 1
53 IRAS 19175+1357 cor 19 19 49.22 +14 02 46.8           ~ 26 0
54 IRAS 19176+1359 Y*? 19 19 55.50936 +14 04 58.2708           ~ 4 0
55 [VS2008] S12 Y*O 19 21 44.7 +13 49 26           ~ 5 0
56 [VS2008] S15 Y*O 19 21 49.1598 +13 49 26.909           ~ 12 0
57 AGAL G048.669-00.304 Y*O 19 21 49.9 +13 49 35           ~ 8 0
58 W 51 SNR 19 23 50 +14 06.0           ~ 1186 1
59 IRAS 19335+1944 IR 19 35 45.9 +19 50 58           ~ 2 0
60 [HBK2008] J19357+1950 SMM1 S smm 19 35 45.9 +19 50 58           ~ 2 0
61 [HBK2008] J19357+1950 SMM1 N smm 19 35 45.9 +19 50 58           ~ 2 0
62 IRAS 19465+2549 IR 19 48 36.8 +25 56 55           ~ 3 0
63 [HBK2008] J19486+2556 SMM2 smm 19 48 36.8 +25 56 55           ~ 2 0
64 [HBK2008] J19486+2556 SMM3 smm 19 48 36.8 +25 56 55           ~ 2 0
65 [HBK2008] J19486+2556 SMM1 smm 19 48 36.8 +25 56 55           ~ 2 0
66 IRAS 20081+2720 HII 20 10 11.5 +27 29 06           ~ 40 0
67 IRAS 20134+3444 MIR 20 15 20.71152 +34 53 51.8820           ~ 6 0
68 [HBK2008] J20153+3453 SMM1 smm 20 15 20.9 +34 53 53           ~ 2 0
69 [HBK2008] J20298+3559 SMM2 smm 20 29 45.6 +35 58 46           ~ 3 0
70 IRAS 20278+3549 Y*O 20 29 47.9311813640 +35 59 26.477303587   16.93 15.32 14.90   B2 10 0
71 JCMTSF J202949.5+355912 smm 20 29 49.9 +35 59 15           ~ 4 0
72 IRAS 21294+5114 MIR 21 31 11.83152 +51 27 35.4204           ~ 2 0
73 NAME Outer Arm PoG 21 48 +69.4           ~ 243 0
74 [HBK2008] J22478+6357 SMM1 E smm 22 47 54.1 +63 57 11           ~ 2 0
75 [HBK2008] J22478+6357 SMM1 W smm 22 47 54.1 +63 57 11           ~ 2 0
76 IRAS 22460+6341 IR 22 47 54.1 +63 57 11           ~ 6 0
77 IRAS 23032+5937 HII 23 05 23.1 +59 53 53           ~ 35 0
78 [HBK2008] J20298+3559 SMM4 smm ~ ~           ~ 2 0

    Equat.    Gal    SGal    Ecl

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2021.07.25-14:55:00

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