M 78

C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2018.11.18CET20:43:31

Available data : Basic data  •  Identifiers  •  Plot & images  •  Bibliography  •  Measurements  •  External archives  •  Notes  •  Annotations


Basic data :
M 78 -- Reflection Nebula
Origin of the objects types :

(Ref) Object type as listed in the reference "Ref"
(acronym) Object type linked to the acronym according to the original reference
() Anterior to 2007, before we can link the objet type to a reference, or given by the CDS team in some particular cases

Other object types:
C?* (Ref), Cl* ([KPS2012]), RNe (DG), ISM (Ced)
Syntax of coordinates is : "ra dec (wtype) [error ellipse] quality bibcode" :
  • ra dec : right ascension and declination (unit and frame defined according to your Output Options)
    Grey values are increasing the original precision due to the computation of frame transformations
  • (wtype) : wavelength class for the origin of the coordinates (Rad, mm, IR, Optical, UV, Xray, Gam)
  • [error ellipse] : coordinates error major axis, minor axis (in mas at defined epoch and convolved with error on propermotion),
    position angle (in degrees North celestial pole to East)
  • quality : flag of quality
    • E ≥ 10"
    • D : 1-10" (and some old data)
    • C : 0.1-1"
    • B : 0.01-0.1" + 2MASS, Tyc
    • A : VLBI, Hipparcos
  • bibcode : bibcode of the coordinates reference
ICRS coord. (ep=J2000) :
05 46 45.8 +00 04 45 [ ] D ~
Syntax of coordinates is : "ra dec (wtype) [error ellipse] quality bibcode" :
  • ra dec : right ascension and declination (unit and frame defined according to your Output Options)
    Grey values are increasing the original precision due to the computation of frame transformations
  • (wtype) : wavelength class for the origin of the coordinates (Rad, mm, IR, Optical, UV, Xray, Gam)
  • [error ellipse] : coordinates error major axis, minor axis (in mas at defined epoch and convolved with error on propermotion),
    position angle (in degrees North celestial pole to East)
  • quality : flag of quality
    • E ≥ 10"
    • D : 1-10" (and some old data)
    • C : 0.1-1"
    • B : 0.01-0.1" + 2MASS, Tyc
    • A : VLBI, Hipparcos
  • bibcode : bibcode of the coordinates reference
FK5 coord. (ep=J2000 eq=2000) :
05 46 45.8 +00 04 45 [ ]
Syntax of coordinates is : "ra dec (wtype) [error ellipse] quality bibcode" :
  • ra dec : right ascension and declination (unit and frame defined according to your Output Options)
    Grey values are increasing the original precision due to the computation of frame transformations
  • (wtype) : wavelength class for the origin of the coordinates (Rad, mm, IR, Optical, UV, Xray, Gam)
  • [error ellipse] : coordinates error major axis, minor axis (in mas at defined epoch and convolved with error on propermotion),
    position angle (in degrees North celestial pole to East)
  • quality : flag of quality
    • E ≥ 10"
    • D : 1-10" (and some old data)
    • C : 0.1-1"
    • B : 0.01-0.1" + 2MASS, Tyc
    • A : VLBI, Hipparcos
  • bibcode : bibcode of the coordinates reference
FK4 coord. (ep=B1950 eq=1950) :
05 44 12.0 +00 03 42 [ ]
Syntax of coordinates is : "ra dec (wtype) [error ellipse] quality bibcode" :
  • ra dec : right ascension and declination (unit and frame defined according to your Output Options)
    Grey values are increasing the original precision due to the computation of frame transformations
  • (wtype) : wavelength class for the origin of the coordinates (Rad, mm, IR, Optical, UV, Xray, Gam)
  • [error ellipse] : coordinates error major axis, minor axis (in mas at defined epoch and convolved with error on propermotion),
    position angle (in degrees North celestial pole to East)
  • quality : flag of quality
    • E ≥ 10"
    • D : 1-10" (and some old data)
    • C : 0.1-1"
    • B : 0.01-0.1" + 2MASS, Tyc
    • A : VLBI, Hipparcos
  • bibcode : bibcode of the coordinates reference
Gal coord. (ep=J2000) :
205.3287 -14.3119 [ ]
Syntax of proper motions is : "pm-ra pm-dec [error ellipse] quality bibcode"
  • pm-ra : mu-ra*cos(dec) (expressed in the ICRS system in mas/yr)
  • pm-dec : mu-dec (expressed in the ICRS system in mas/yr)
  • [error ellipse] : error major axis and minor axis (in mas), orientation angle (in deg)
  • quality : flag of quality (A=best quality -> E=worst quality, {� } =unknown quality)
  • bibcode : bibcode of the proper motion reference
Proper motions mas/yr :
-0.93 -4.50 [1.48 1.48 90] D 2013A&A...558A..53K
Syntax of radial velocity (or/and redshift) is : "value [error] (wavelength) quality bibcode"
  • value : radial velocity or/and redshift (Heliocentric frame) according to your Output Options
    (redshift may be not displayed if the data value is <0 and the database inside value is a radial velocity)
  • [error] : error of the corresponding value displayed before
  • (wavelength) : wavelength range of the measurement : Rad, mm, IR, Opt, UV, Xray, Gam or  '∼'(unknown)
  • quality : flag of quality ( A=best quality -> E=worst quality, {� } =unknown quality)
  • bibcode : bibcode of the value's origin
Radial velocity / Redshift / cz :
V(km/s) 63.30 [7.30] / z(~) 0.000211 [0.000024] / cz 63.31 [7.30]
   E 2013A&A...558A..53K
Syntax of fluxes (or magnitudes) is : "filter-name (System) flux-value [error] quality MultVarFlags bibcode"
  • filter-name : U, B, V, R, I, G, J, H, K, u, g, r, i, z
  • (System) : may be AB (default is Vega)
  • flux-value : value of flux or magnitude
  • [error] : error value
  • quality : flag of quality of the flux value ( A=best quality -> E=worst quality, {� } =unknown quality)
  • MultVarFlags : Mult is zero or one char (J) for joined photometry ; Var can be zero or two chars (V[0-4])
  • bibcode : bibcode of the flux reference
Fluxes (1) :
B 8.0 [~] D ~
SIMBAD with radius arcmin
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VizieR photometry viewer    sed-help-icon
within radius arcsec The VizieR photometry tool allows for easy visualization of photometry points extracted around the Simbad position from photometry-enabled catalogues in VizieR.
The search radius has to be specified by the user. It is currently limited to a maximum of 30 arcsec. It depends mostly on the precision or quality of the coordinates (SIMBAD and VizieR catalogs), the resolution of the images from which the sources were extracted, source extent, and source crowding.
Suggestions are: crowded field: 0.5 to 1.5 arcsec, 3 arcsec otherwise; uncertain coordinates (SIMBAD quality E or coordinates without reference): 5 to 30 arsec (risky!).

Hierarchy : number of linked objects
whatever the membership probability is (see description here ) :

The count displayed here is the number of children objects.
The list obtained by clicking the button may be larger, as some children may be linked with different references or probability.

%This number is the number of distinct objets linked, by using this button, you will obtain all links (may be more than one) from that object to his children

: 1
Display criteria :

The link on the acronym of the identifiers give access to the information for this acronym in the dictionary of nomenclature.
Identifiers (5) :
An access of full data is available using the icon Vizier near the identifier of the catalogue

M 78 DG 80 [KPS2012] MWSC 0664
Ced 55u NGC 2068

Plots and Images

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Aladin applet

References (53 between 2014 and 2019) (Total 326)
Simbad bibliographic survey began in 1850 for stars (at least bright stars) and in 1983 for all other objects (outside the solar system).
Follow new references on this object
                Reference summaries :

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Observing logs


ISO : 10   

   

Warning : measurements from IRAS, IRC, SAO, CL.g (ACO), GJ have been removed
(they are still available using the icon Vizier near the identifier of the catalogue, or at the bottom of the page in the section "External links" to get the full data)

iso (10)

The 2 columns in color are computed by VizieR, and are not part of the original data.
Note: Quick-look images of the data, and specific documentation, are accessible by clicking on the TDT observation identifier
VI/111/isolog
Post annotation
ISO Observation Log (ISO Data Centre, 2004) [ReadMe+ftp]

*The ISO Observation Log (36737 rows) (Note)
img(gal)
start AladinLite

Full _r TDT AOT minLam maxLam Target oStart oLen recno FOV RAJ2000 DEJ2000 cal ObsID abs PropID arcmin um um s s deg deg
1 0.512 87702428 LWS01 -1.00 -1.00 NGC 2068 P1 1998-04-10T21:54:16 1630 36381 84" D 086.6825 +00.0772 AFUENTE PDR02 2 0.521 83501503 SWS02 2.61 35.10 NGC 2068 p1 1998-02-27T22:02:44 5116 34695 33"x20" 086.6824 +00.0770 AFUENTE PDR02 3 1.086 69802809 SWS02 2.61 35.11 NGC 2068 p3 1997-10-14T07:16:28 5118 29191 33"x20" 086.7015 +00.0646 AFUENTE PDR02 4 1.094 83501430 LWS01 43.05 195.88 NGC 2068 P3 1998-02-27T21:34:44 1630 34694 84" D 086.7016 +00.0645 AFUENTE PDR02 5 1.143 85801912 SWS02 2.61 35.10 NGC 2068 p4 1998-03-22T22:56:49 5118 35704 33"x20" 086.6824 +00.0963 AFUENTE PDR02 6 1.702 69802715 SWS02 2.61 35.11 NGC 2068 p5 1997-10-14T05:50:22 5116 29190 33"x20" 086.6824 +00.0521 AFUENTE PDR02 7 2.250 68901104 CAM01 5.05 8.35 NGC2068 1997-10-05T03:53:14 2694 28914 18'x26' 086.6533 +00.0790 LNORDH SURVEY_2 8 2.250 68901123 CAM01 11.55 17.05 NGC2068 1997-10-05T06:20:44 2694 28918 18'x26' 086.6533 +00.0790 LNORDH SURVEY_2 9 3.127 69802618 SWS02 2.61 35.11 NGC 2068 p6 1997-10-14T04:24:14 5116 29189 33"x20" 086.7074 +00.0298 AFUENTE PDR02 10 4.252 69803021 SWS02 2.61 35.11 NGC 2068 p7 1997-10-14T09:18:30 1934 29193 33"x20" 086.7074 +00.0103 AFUENTE PDR02


External archives :

Data at NED - NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database : M 78

Link by name to the catalogue in VizieR :

NGC 2068

Search by coordinates in Vizier (radius: 5 arcsec)


Annotations :
Annotations allow a user to add a note or report an error concerning the astronomical object and its data. It requires registration to post a note. See description .
The list of all annotations to SIMBAD objects can be found here .

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2018.11.18-20:43:32

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