2021A&A...653A..63S


Query : 2021A&A...653A..63S

2021A&A...653A..63S - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 653A, 63-63 (2021/9-1)

Bird's eye view of molecular clouds in the Milky Way. I. Column density and star formation from sub-parsec to kiloparsec scales.

SPILKER A., KAINULAINEN J. and ORKISZ J.

Abstract (from CDS):


Context. Describing how the properties of the interstellar medium are combined across various size scales is crucial for understanding star formation scaling laws and connecting Galactic and extragalactic data of molecular clouds.
Aims. We describe how the statistical structure of the clouds and its connection to star formation changes from sub-parsec to kiloparsec scales in a complete region within the Milky Way disk.
Methods. We built a census of molecular clouds within 2kpc from the Sun using data from the literature. We examined the dust-based column density probability distributions (N-PDFs) of the clouds and their relation to star formation as traced by young stellar objects (YSOs). We then examined our survey region from the outside, within apertures of varying sizes, and describe how the N-PDFs and their relation to star formation changes with the size scale.
Results. We present a census of the molecular clouds within 2kpc distance, including 72 clouds and YSO counts for 44 of them. The N-PDFs of the clouds are not well described by any single simple model; use of any single model may bias the interpretation of the N-PDFs. The top-heaviness of the N-PDFs correlates with star formation activity, and the correlation changes with Galactic environment (spiral- and inter-arm regions). We find that the density contrast of clouds may be more intimately linked to star formation than the dense gas mass fraction. The aperture-averaged N-PDFs vary with the size scale and are more top-heavy for larger apertures. The top-heaviness of the aperture N-PDFs correlates with star formation activity up to roughly 0.5kpc, depending on the environment. Our results suggest that the relations between cloud structure and star formation are environment specific and best captured by relative quantities (e.g. the density contrast). Finally, we show that the density structures of individual clouds give rise to a kiloparsec-scale Kennicutt-Schmidt relation as a combination of sampling effects and blending of different galactic environments.

Abstract Copyright: © ESO 2021

Journal keyword(s): ISM: clouds - ISM: structure - solar neighborhood - local insterstellar matter - galaxies: ISM - galaxies: star formation

Simbad objects: 81

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Number of rows : 81
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2023
#notes
1 Ass Cep OB 4 As* 00 02 +67.7           ~ 75 1
2 LDN 1265 DNe 00 09.6 +58 52           ~ 16 0
3 NAME Cartwheel G 00 37 41.1133192392 -33 42 58.515101748   19.26   18.52   ~ 268 1
4 LDN 1293 DNe 00 40 53.6 +63 04 53           ~ 11 0
5 LDN 1306 DNe 01 03.1 +62 16           ~ 8 0
6 LDN 1307 DNe 01 05.2 +65 16           ~ 10 0
7 M 33 GiG 01 33 50.8965749232 +30 39 36.630403128 6.17 6.27 5.72     ~ 5611 1
8 LDN 1335 DNe 01 51.7 +66 05           ~ 7 0
9 LDN 1333 DNe 02 26 04 +75 28.5           ~ 55 0
10 W 3 MoC 02 27 04.10 +61 52 27.1           ~ 1013 3
11 LDN 1340 DNe 02 30 40 +72 57.3           ~ 32 0
12 NAME Heart Nebula HII 02 32.7 +61 27           ~ 308 1
13 IC 1848 OpC 02 51 25 +60 25.1   6.87 6.5     ~ 478 2
14 LDN 1355 DNe 02 52.7 +69 02           ~ 19 0
15 MBM 12 MoC 02 56 50 +19 32.0           ~ 219 1
16 MBM 16 MoC 03 19 04.1 +11 34 52           ~ 63 0
17 NAME AFGL 490 Cluster Cl* 03 27 39 +58 47.0           ~ 10 0
18 NAME Perseus Cloud SFR 03 35.0 +31 13           ~ 1268 0
19 NGC 1499 HII 04 03 18 +36 25.3           ~ 168 0
20 LBN 202.16-31.23 HII 04 41 -05.4           ~ 2 0
21 NAME Taurus Complex SFR 04 41.0 +25 52           ~ 4102 0
22 LBN 203.50-30.15 HII 04 47.7 -05 55           ~ 6 0
23 LBN 208.39-28.45 RNe 05 01 -08.9           ~ 7 0
24 [CB88] 28 MoC 05 06 16.0 -03 56 29           ~ 22 0
25 LBN 213.16-27.73 HII 05 11 -12.4           ~ 3 0
26 NAME LMC G 05 23 34.6 -69 45 22     0.4     ~ 16530 1
27 NAME lam Ori Cloud Cld 05 35 06 +09 56.0           ~ 51 0
28 NAME Ori A MoC 05 38 -07.1           ~ 2899 0
29 GGD 4 HH 05 40 25 +23 50.9           ~ 45 0
30 SH 2-235 HII 05 41.1 +35 50           ~ 214 0
31 NAME Ori B MoC 05 41 43.0 -01 54 44           ~ 1304 0
32 NAME Mon R2 HII 06 07 47.58 -06 22 42.6           ~ 712 2
33 Ass Gem OB 1 As* 06 09.8 +21 35           ~ 183 0
34 IC 443 SNR 06 17.0 +22 34           ~ 1193 1
35 NAME Gemini OB1 Molecular Cloud MoC 06 19.0 +23 00           ~ 41 0
36 NAME Cam Cloud Cld 06 31 +71.2           ~ 61 0
37 NAME Rosette Molecular Cloud MoC 06 34.7 +04 02           ~ 254 0
38 NAME Mon I MoC 06 35 +10.1           ~ 241 0
39 NAME Maddalena Cloud MoC 06 48.1 -03 52           ~ 89 0
40 NAME CMa OB1 As* 07 07.0 -10 28           ~ 140 0
41 NGC 2362 OpC 07 18 41 -24 57.2           ~ 396 0
42 NAME GUM Nebula ISM 07 43 -42.1           ~ 413 1
43 NAME Vela C Cld 08 57 -43.2           ~ 160 0
44 NAME Spider Cirrus MoC 10 38.4 +73 29           ~ 8 0
45 NAME UMa Region reg 11 00 +50.0           ~ 324 0
46 NAME Polaris Flare MoC 11 00 14.8 +86 10 52           ~ 184 1
47 NAME Chamaeleon Region SFR 11 55 -78.0           ~ 760 0
48 NAME Coalsack Nebula DNe 12 31 19 -63 44.6           ~ 250 0
49 M 51 GiP 13 29 52.698 +47 11 42.93   9.26 8.36 8.40   ~ 4166 4
50 NAME Circinus Cloud Cld 15 02 -63.0           ~ 34 0
51 LDN 134 MoC 15 53 36.3 -04 35 26           ~ 202 0
52 NAME Lupus Complex SFR 16 03 -38.1           ~ 643 0
53 NAME Ophiuchus Molecular Cloud SFR 16 28 06 -24 32.5           ~ 3449 1
54 NAME Norma Cloud Cld 16 34 -45.0           ~ 27 1
55 Ass Ara OB 1 As* 16 39.5 -46 46           ~ 93 0
56 NAME Draco Cloud MoC 16 48 17 +60 11.8           ~ 69 1
57 NGC 6334 HII 17 20 53 -36 07.9           ~ 655 0
58 NAME the Pipe Nebula DNe 17 30 -25.0           ~ 378 1
59 NAME Galactic Center reg 17 45 39.60213 -29 00 22.0000           ~ 13455 0
60 M 20 OpC 18 02 42 -22 58.3           ~ 422 1
61 M 8 HII 18 03 37 -24 23.2           ~ 598 1
62 NGC 6604 OpC 18 18 03 -12 14.5           ~ 133 0
63 M 16 OpC 18 18 45 -13 47.5   6.58 6.0     ~ 1006 2
64 LDN 291 DNe 18 20.0 -20 59           ~ 18 0
65 NGC 6618 OpC 18 20 47 -16 10.3           ~ 1575 0
66 NAME Aquila South Cloud MoC 18 29 42.72 -02 46 48.0           ~ 12 0
67 NAME Serpens Cloud SFR 18 29 49 +01 14.8           ~ 1050 2
68 NAME Hercules Cloud MoC 18 40 +14.3           ~ 10 0
69 NAME Corona Australis Cloud MoC 19 01 51 -36 58.9           ~ 455 0
70 NAME Cyg X Cld 20 28 41 +41 10.2           ~ 758 1
71 Ass Cyg OB 7 As* 21 08 +47.6           ~ 207 0
72 IC 1396 OpC 21 38 59 +57 30.8           ~ 478 1
73 IC 5146 OpC 21 53 29 +47 14.8           ~ 445 2
74 SH 2-140 OpC 22 19 07.8 +63 17 07           ~ 651 2
75 NAME Ass Cep OB 3b As* 22 55 31.19 +62 38 54.1           ~ 44 0
76 SH 2-147 HII 22 55.7 +58 28           ~ 36 1
77 NAME Lacerta Cloud MoC 22 57 +43.7           ~ 9 0
78 NAME Pegasus Cloud MoC 23 11 +23.4           ~ 10 0
79 NAME Cepheus Flare MoC 23 34 +72.0           ~ 124 0
80 NAME Cyg Nebula ISM ~ ~           ~ 5 0
81 NAME Aql Region reg ~ ~           ~ 367 0

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2023.02.08-01:03:09

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