Astron. J., 145, 102 (2013/April-0)
A spectroscopic catalog of the brightest (J<9) M dwarfs in the northern sky.
LEPINE S., HILTON E.J., MANN A.W., WILDE M., ROJAS-AYALA B., CRUZ K.L. and GAIDOS E.
Abstract (from CDS):
We present a spectroscopic catalog of the 1564 brightest (J < 9) M dwarf candidates in the northern sky, as selected from the SUPERBLINK proper motion catalog. Observations confirm 1408 of the candidates to be late-K and M dwarfs with spectral subtypes K7-M6. From the low (µ > 40 mas/yr) proper motion limit and high level of completeness of the SUPERBLINK catalog in that magnitude range, we estimate that our spectroscopic census most likely includes >90% of all existing, northern-sky M dwarfs with apparent magnitude J < 9. Only 682 stars in our sample are listed in the Third Catalog of Nearby Stars (CNS3); most others are relative unknowns and have spectroscopic data presented here for the first time. Spectral subtypes are assigned based on spectral index measurements of CaH and TiO molecular bands; a comparison of spectra from the same stars obtained at different observatories, however, reveals that spectral band index measurements are dependent on spectral resolution, spectrophotometric calibration, and other instrumental factors. As a result, we find that a consistent classification scheme requires that spectral indices be calibrated and corrected for each observatory/instrument used. After systematic corrections and a recalibration of the subtype-index relationships for the CaH2, CaH3, TiO5, and TiO6 spectral indices, we find that we can consistently and reliably classify all our stars to a half-subtype precision. The use of corrected spectral indices further requires us to recalibrate the ζ parameter, a metallicity indicator based on the ratio of TiO and CaH optical bandheads. However, we find that our ζ values are not sensitive enough to diagnose metallicity variations in dwarfs of subtypes M2 and earlier (±0.5 dex accuracy) and are only marginally useful at later M3-M5 subtypes (±0.2 dex accuracy). Fits of our spectra to the Phoenix atmospheric model grid are used to estimate effective temperatures. These suggest the existence of a plateau in the M1-M3 subtype range, in agreement with model fits of infrared spectra but at odds with photometric determinations of Teff. Existing geometric parallax measurements are extracted from the literature for 624 stars, and are used to determine spectroscopic and photometric distances for all the other stars. Active dwarfs are identified from measurements of Hα equivalent widths, and we find a strong correlation between Hα emission in M dwarfs and detected X-ray emission from ROSAT and/or a large UV excess in the GALEX point source catalog. We combine proper motion data and photometric distances to evaluate the (U, V, W) distribution in velocity space, which is found to correlate tightly with the velocity distribution of G dwarfs in the solar neighborhood. However, active stars show a smaller dispersion in their space velocities, which is consistent with those stars being younger on average. Our catalog will be most useful to guide the selection of the best M dwarf targets for exoplanet searches, in particular those using high-precision radial velocity measurements.
brown dwarfs - catalogs - stars: fundamental parameters - stars: late-type - stars: low-mass - surveys
VizieR on-line data:
<Available at CDS (J/AJ/145/102): table1.dat table3.dat table7.dat>
Tables 1, 3, 6-7: PM JHHMMm+DDMMWw N=1564.
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